CO - Arapahoe: Arapahoe County Board of County Commissioners

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Arapahoe County Board of County Commissioners

Kathleen Conti, District 1 Nancy Sharpe, District 2

Jeff Baker, Chair, District 3 Nancy Jackson, Chair Pro Tem, District 4

Bill Holen, District 5

Study Session October 1, 2019 Study Session Topics *Executive Session (WHR) Executive Study Session and County Attorney Administrative Meeting [Section 24-6-402 (4)C.R.S.](As required by law, specific agenda topics will be announced in open meeting prior to the commencement of the closed and confidential portion of this session) (WHR)
Tagged Passions:legal

Ron Carl, County Attorney

*Business Personal Property Tax Rebate Incentive For Gemini Mountain Medical (WHR) Discussion of a request from Denver South Economic Development Partnership on behalf of Gemini Mountain Medical for Arapahoe County to participate in a business personal property tax rebate agreement with the company Request: Information/Direction
Tagged Passions:business, legal, economic development, taxes, Taxes, development, Development, property, incentive, and property tax

Lynn Myers, Senior Vice President, Denver South Economic Development Partnership Tom Brook, CEO, Denver South Economic Development Partnership Christine Shapard, Vice President of Economic Development, Denver South Economic Development Partnership Kory Mossoni, Gemini Mountain Medical

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:economic development, development, and Development

GEMINI MOUNTAIN MEDICAL - 9-17-19.DOCX

Administrative Meeting - Department Director Process Review (WHR) Dusty Sash, Total Compensation Manager, Human Resources Break

Tagged Passions:compensation, manager, and human resources

*C18-025 Oil And Gas Transportation Impact Study (WHR) Discussion of updated information regarding the Oil and Gas Transportation Impact Fees

Request: Information/Direction
Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil and transportation

Chuck Haskins, PE, Division Manager, Engineering Services Division, Public Works and Development Bryan Weimer, Director, Public Works and Development Keith Ashby, Purchasing Manager, Finance Robert Hill, Senior Assistant County Attorney

C18-025 10-1-19 STUDY SESSION.PDF ARAPAHOE COUNTY O G TRANSPORTATION IMPACT STUDY - DRAFT - 091219.PDF * To Be Recorded As Required By Law WHR - West Hearing Room Arapahoe County is committed to making its public meetings accessible to persons with disabilities. Assisted listening devices are available. Ask any staff member and we will provide one for you.

Tagged Passions:finance, legal, development, transportation, services, purchasing, Development, Public Works, public works, and manager

If you need special accommodations, contact the Commissioners Office at 303-795-4630 or Relay Colorado 711.

Please contact our office at least 3 days in advance to make arrangements.

Administration Building West Hearing Room

5334 S. Prince St. Littleton, CO 80120

303-795-4630 Relay Colorado 711 The Arapahoe County Board of County Commissioners typically holds weekly Study Sessions on Monday and Tuesday. Study Sessions (except for Executive Sessions) are open to the public and items for discussion are included on this agenda. Agendas (except for Executive Sessions agendas) are available through the Commissioners Office or through the County s web site at www.arapahoegov.com. Please note that the Board may discuss any topic relevant to County business, whether or not the topic has been specifically noticed on this agenda. In particular, the Board typically schedules time each Monday under Committee Updates to discuss a wide

Tagged Passions:business

range of topics. In addition, the Board may alter the times of the meetings throughout the day, or cancel or reschedule noticed meetings. Questions about this agenda? Contact the

Commissioners Office at 303-795-4630 or by e-mail at commissioners@arapahoegov.com 10:00 A.M. 11:00 A.M. Documents: 11:30 A.M. 1:00 P.M. Documents:

Kathleen Conti, District 1 Nancy Sharpe, District 2

Jeff Baker, Chair, District 3 Nancy Jackson, Chair Pro Tem, District 4

Bill Holen, District 5

Study Session October 1, 2019 Study Session Topics *Executive Session (WHR) Executive Study Session and County Attorney Administrative Meeting [Section 24-6-402 (4)C.R.S.](As required by law, specific agenda topics will be announced in open meeting prior to the commencement of the closed and confidential portion of this session) (WHR)
Tagged Passions:legal

Ron Carl, County Attorney

*Business Personal Property Tax Rebate Incentive For Gemini Mountain Medical (WHR) Discussion of a request from Denver South Economic Development Partnership on behalf of Gemini Mountain Medical for Arapahoe County to participate in a business personal property tax rebate agreement with the company Request: Information/Direction
Tagged Passions:business, legal, economic development, taxes, Taxes, development, Development, property, incentive, and property tax

Lynn Myers, Senior Vice President, Denver South Economic Development Partnership Tom Brook, CEO, Denver South Economic Development Partnership Christine Shapard, Vice President of Economic Development, Denver South Economic Development Partnership Kory Mossoni, Gemini Mountain Medical

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:economic development, development, and Development

GEMINI MOUNTAIN MEDICAL - 9-17-19.DOCX

Administrative Meeting - Department Director Process Review (WHR) Dusty Sash, Total Compensation Manager, Human Resources Break

Tagged Passions:compensation, manager, and human resources

*C18-025 Oil And Gas Transportation Impact Study (WHR) Discussion of updated information regarding the Oil and Gas Transportation Impact Fees

Request: Information/Direction
Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil and transportation

Chuck Haskins, PE, Division Manager, Engineering Services Division, Public Works and Development Bryan Weimer, Director, Public Works and Development Keith Ashby, Purchasing Manager, Finance Robert Hill, Senior Assistant County Attorney

C18-025 10-1-19 STUDY SESSION.PDF ARAPAHOE COUNTY O G TRANSPORTATION IMPACT STUDY - DRAFT - 091219.PDF * To Be Recorded As Required By Law WHR - West Hearing Room Arapahoe County is committed to making its public meetings accessible to persons with disabilities. Assisted listening devices are available. Ask any staff member and we will provide one for you.

Tagged Passions:finance, legal, development, transportation, services, purchasing, Development, Public Works, public works, and manager

If you need special accommodations, contact the Commissioners Office at 303-795-4630 or Relay Colorado 711.

Please contact our office at least 3 days in advance to make arrangements.

Administration Building West Hearing Room

5334 S. Prince St. Littleton, CO 80120

303-795-4630 Relay Colorado 711 The Arapahoe County Board of County Commissioners typically holds weekly Study Sessions on Monday and Tuesday. Study Sessions (except for Executive Sessions) are open to the public and items for discussion are included on this agenda. Agendas (except for Executive Sessions agendas) are available through the Commissioners Office or through the County s web site at www.arapahoegov.com. Please note that the Board may discuss any topic relevant to County business, whether or not the topic has been specifically noticed on this agenda. In particular, the Board typically schedules time each Monday under Committee Updates to discuss a wide

Tagged Passions:business

range of topics. In addition, the Board may alter the times of the meetings throughout the day, or cancel or reschedule noticed meetings. Questions about this agenda? Contact the

Commissioners Office at 303-795-4630 or by e-mail at commissioners@arapahoegov.com 10:00 A.M. 11:00 A.M. Documents: 11:30 A.M. 1:00 P.M. Documents: 304 Inverness Way South, 315 Englewood, CO 8011

p.
303.792.9447 f. 720.47.1771 www.DenverSouthEDP.org

www.DenverSouthEDP.org

To: Arapahoe County Commissioners

No additional detail provided

From: Lynn Myers Christine Shapard, Denver South Economic Development Partnership

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:economic development, development, and Development

Subject: Gemini Mountain Medical

Date: October 1, 2019

Project Description: Gemini Mountain Medical supports and distributes products from Arthrex, the world leader in new product development and minimally invasive procedures in orthopedics. Since 1981, Arthrex has advanced the field of arthroscopy and developed more than 10,000 innovative products and surgical procedures all with an emphasis on patient outcomes as well as socially and environmentally responsible business practices. Gemini Mountain Medical is the leading sales agency in the world for Arthrex. Gemini Mountain Medical provides product, procedure and medical education information. The company works closely with the CU Steadman Hawkins Clinic and their team of Doctors and medical professionals. Gemini Mountain Medical is currently based in Greenwood Village. The company is building a new 25,000 square foot building at 25 Inverness Drive East in the Inverness Business Park. The facility will include office space, medical education training rooms and inventory storage space. The company plans to relocate to the new facility in January 2020. The company presently has 87 employees and plans to add 25 new positions. These positions will pay an estimated 75,000 average annual wage. The project will also bring approximately 2 million in new business personal property tax (furniture, fixtures equipment).

Tagged Passions:business, equipment, facility, sale, taxes, Taxes, development, procedure, training, parks, Development, property, education, and property tax

Request of Arapahoe County: The Denver South Economic Development Partnership on behalf of Gemini Mountain Medical requests Arapahoe County participate in a business personal property tax rebate agreement with the company. We ask that the rebate be for the 100 of the County portion of the business personal property tax for a full ten-year period. With agreement to move forward the company representatives will work with Arapahoe County staff to draft the incentive agreement document.

Objective: The objective of this request is to support efforts to attract high quality, highly visible companies to Arapahoe County and the region. We ask for your support of this outstanding company. Thank you for your consideration.
Tagged Passions:business, economic development, taxes, Taxes, development, Development, property, incentive, and property tax

Oil Gas Transportation Impact Study

Arapahoe County Draft August 2019 DRAFT Prepared for: Arapahoe County 6924 S. Lima Street Centennial, CO 80112 Prepared by:
Tagged Passions:streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, and transportation

Felsburg Holt Ullevig 6300 South Syracuse Way, Suite 600

Centennial, CO 80111 303.721.1440 August 2019 FHU Reference No. 118280-01 Page i DRAFT August 2019

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ...................................................................................................................... iv 1.0 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................1

Study Purpose .................................................................................................................................. 1 Study Area ........................................................................................................................................ 1 Process ............................................................................................................................................. 3 Other Energy-Related Uses .............................................................................................................. 4
Tagged Passions:energy

2.
OIL GAS ASSUMPTIONS FOR ARAPAHOE COUNTY................................................................5 Oil Gas Development Process Overview ...................................................................................... 5 Location and Density........................................................................................................................ 7 Other Oil Gas Assumptions .......................................................................................................... 9

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, and Development

3.
MODELING TRAVEL DEMAND OF OIL GAS ACTIVITY ........................................................... 11 Travel Demand Model Methodology ............................................................................................. 11 Inventory of Study Area Roadways ................................................................................................ 11 Trip Origins/Destinations ............................................................................................................... 17 Trip Generation .............................................................................................................................. 21 Truck Typology ............................................................................................................................... 26 Trip Distribution and Assignment .................................................................................................. 28 Model Results ................................................................................................................................ 29

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:travel, Fossil Fuels - Oil, and transportation

4.
STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT .............................................................................................. 30 5. OIL GAS IMPACT MITIGATION NEEDS ................................................................................ 31

Paved Road Analysis ...................................................................................................................... 31 Unpaved Road Analysis .................................................................................................................. 33

Tagged Passions:streets and Fossil Fuels - Oil

6.
OIL GAS ROADWAY IMPACT FEES ...................................................................................... 36 Road Deterioration Based Fee ....................................................................................................... 36 Vehicle-Mile-Based Fee ................................................................................................................. 40 Combined Fee ................................................................................................................................ 43 Fee Schedules for Other Oil and Gas Scenarios ............................................................................. 44

Appendices Appendix A. References Appendix B. Other Travel Model Assumptions Appendix C. Mitigation Unit Costs Summary Appendix D. Stakeholder Comments Responses Page ii DRAFT August 2019

Tagged Passions:streets, travel, and Fossil Fuels - Oil

LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Study Area ................................................................................................................................. 2 Figure 2. Study Process Diagram .............................................................................................................. 3 Figure 3. Pad Zones .................................................................................................................................. 8 Figure 4. Study Area Road Network ....................................................................................................... 12 Figure 5. Surface Types .......................................................................................................................... 13 Figure 6. Existing Pavement Conditions ................................................................................................. 14 Figure 7. Vehicles per Day on Unpaved Study Area Roads Receiving Oil Gas Traffic ......................... 16 Figure 8. Fresh Water Sources ............................................................................................................... 19 Figure 9. Produced Water Disposal Assumptions .................................................................................. 20 Figure 10. Production Decline in Niobrara Wells ..................................................................................... 23 Figure 11. Flexible Pavement ESAL Equation ........................................................................................... 27 Figure 12. Pavement Condition Assumptions .......................................................................................... 32 Figure 13. AASHTO Equation for Flexible Pavements .............................................................................. 32 Figure 14. Road Deterioration Based Fee Calculation Methodology ....................................................... 38

Page iii DRAFT August 2019
Tagged Passions:streets, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, Utility, water, and traffic

LIST OF TABLES Table 1. National Data on Trip Generation During Pad and Well Development .................................. 22 Table 2. Impact of Water Pipelines on Average Development Trip Generation (1 pad, 1 well) ........... 22 Table 3. Trip Sensitivity by Activity ....................................................................................................... 23 Table 4. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration No Pipelines ............................................ 24 Table 5. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Fresh Water Pipelines ............................. 24 Table 6. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Produced Water Pipelines ...................... 24 Table 7. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Fresh Produced Water Pipelines ......... 24 Table 8. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Product Pipelines .................................... 25 Table 9. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Fresh Water Product Pipelines ........... 25 Table 10. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Produced Water Product

Tagged Passions:utility, development, Utility, water, and Development

Pipelines .................................................................................................................................. 25 Table 11. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Fresh Water, Produced Water,

Product Pipelines ..................................................................................................................... 25 Table 12. Types of Trucks Used for Oil and Gas Activity ......................................................................... 26 Table 13. Example of Determining a Truck s ESAL Factor for a Flexible Surface .................................... 27 Table 14. Typical Truck Classifications by Development Phase .............................................................. 28 Table 15. Trip Distribution Assumptions ................................................................................................. 29 Table 16. Assumptions for Existing Pavement Sections.......................................................................... 32 Table 17. Unpaved Road Maintenance Schedule and Costs ................................................................... 35 Table 18. Oil Gas Impact Fee Methods by Mitigation Activity ............................................................ 36 Table 19. Impact Costs for Oil and Gas Development and Production without Pipelines (2019 ) ........ 37 Table 20. Impact Costs for Oil and Gas Development and Production with Fresh Water,

Tagged Passions:streets, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, transportation, water, and Development

Produced Water, and Product Pipelines (2019 ) .................................................................... 38 Table 21. Full Oil and Gas Road Deterioration Impact Fee Schedule Options (2019 ) .......................... 39 Table 22. Maximum Oil and Gas Road Deterioration Impact Fee Schedule (2019 ) ............................. 40 Table 23. Average Daily Trips Per Well and Per Pad ............................................................................... 41 Table 24. Vehicle Mile-Based Fee Component Calculation .................................................................... 42 Table 25. Vehicle Mile-Based Fee by Pipeline Scenario .......................................................................... 42 Table 26. Combined Maximum Oil and Gas Roadway Impact Fee Schedule (2019 ) ............................ 43 Table 27. Average Per-ESAL Road Deterioration Fees (2019 ) ............................................................... 44 Table 28. Combined Maximum Oil and Gas Roadway Impact Fee Schedule for Vertical Wells

(2019 ) .................................................................................................................................... 44 Table 29. Per-ESAL Road Deterioration Fees for Vertical Wells (2019 ) ................................................ 45 Table 30. Combined Maximum Oil and Gas Roadway Impact Fee Schedule for Re-Fracking a Well (2019 ) ............................................................................................................................ 45 Table 31. Per-ESAL Road Deterioration Fees for Re-Fracking a Well (2019 ) ........................................ 45 Page iv DRAFT August 2019

Tagged Passions:streets, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, Utility, water, fracking, and FRACKING

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Background and Purpose Due to Arapahoe County s location in the Denver-Julesburg Basin, energy companies have shown an increased interest in exploration and drilling in the County. Many national and international factors will shape future levels of drilling activity, including oil and gas prices, national economic growth prospects, and the merit of the Niobrara Shale relative to other production areas.

Oil and gas drilling and production can impact local road systems, as well as other public infrastructure and services. Arapahoe County has commissioned this study to understand the potential impacts of oil and gas development and production on the County s road system and to design a roadway impact fee to offset increased costs of transportation impacts associated with heavy truck traffic from oil and gas activity. The purpose of designing oil and gas roadway impact fees is to recover the incremental costs associated with the oil and gas industry s impact on Arapahoe County s road network. Because of the nature of oil and gas development, the most intense impact occurs during the first month of a well s life. After the development phase, the well enters the less trip-intensive, though ongoing, production phase. The capital required to recover the costs of the development phase is ideally recovered before development begins or during the permitting process. The fees are designed to recoup the cost to the County associated with road deterioration and other related impacts. Arapahoe County has authority derived from state statutes to regulate public roads over which it has jurisdiction. The oil and gas impact fees are designed and structured within these parameters.
Tagged Passions:boards and commissions, streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, services, Development, energy, traffic, and growth

Trip Generation and Loads Oil and gas development requires the transport of heavy equipment to the well site to build access roads, construct a well pad, and transport a drilling rig and hydraulic fracturing equipment. Heavy trucks are also required to bring fresh water to the well site and to transport produced water and extracted resources off site. Based on literature reviews and recent oil and gas studies completed along the Front Range, a typical horizontally-drilled and fracked well on a single pad in the study area will generate an estimated 3,138 trips during its two- to three-week development period, largely related to water delivery and removal. Once a well is in the production phase, it generates an average of about two trips per day for the remainder of its productive life. This trip generation estimate can be converted from a one-pad, one-well format to the more common multi-well pad configuration. For example, a 10-well pad configuration will generate nearly 22,300 truck trips during the development phase.

Constructed well pad with drilling rig in the Niobrara Shale. Source: Carrizo Oil Gas Inc. Page v DRAFT August 2019

Tagged Passions:equipment, streets, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, transportation, water, Development, fracking, and FRACKING

Loads for each truck the weight and how it is distributed across a truck s axles are the main determinants of impacts to roadway surfaces. Equivalent single axle loads (ESALs) for each trip are used to calculate heavy vehicle trips impacts on a road s surface condition. A variety of the vehicle types used for oil and gas activities are specialized and/or of significant weight, resulting in ESAL factors greater than many typical vehicles. The load impact of oil and gas trucks can be as much as 8,000 to 23,000 times that of a passenger car.

Mitigation Costs This roadway impact study uses a travel demand model that focuses exclusively on oil and gas trips and loads using Arapahoe County s road network within the study area (unincorporated County land east of E-470), which was divided into three districts: West (E-470 to Brick-Center Road), East-Central (Brick- Center Road to Price Road), and Far East (east of Price Road). The model calculates the industry trips and loads associated with a single 10-well pad within 2 square-mile blocks of sections in the West district (75 pads), 6-well pad within 6 square-mile blocks of sections in the East-Central district (44 pads), and 2 well pad within 24 square-mile blocks of sections in the Far East district (9, for a total of 128 pads). The costs to offset the impacts on Arapahoe County s roads are calculated and divided by the number of pads and wells to calculate a per-pad and per-well fee that is representative of the average impacts of oil and gas development in the County. The roadway deterioration costs account for: The incremental depth of pavement required to recover the damage on asphalt roads Reconstruction of asphalt roads that are in Very Poor condition, when more cost effective Increased maintenance requirements on unpaved roads

Tagged Passions:streets, travel, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, Development, and poverty

Paving of gravel roads and safety improvements are also considered; however, are more trip-based in nature. Safety costs are based on shoulder widening to maintain safe multimodal roads designated as bike routes with the increased truck traffic associated with the oil and gas development. Wider shoulders provide space for bicyclists separate from the travel lanes. Shoulders also provide safety benefits for all roadway users: they serve as a countermeasure to run-off-road crashes and provide a stopping area for breakdowns or other emergencies.

An oil derrick being hauled. Source: Colorado Motor Carriers Association Page vi DRAFT August 2019 Oil Gas Roadway Impact Fee Methodology This study uses two fee methods: one to calculate fees for recovering road deterioration (load-based) costs and one to calculate fees to account for the need to pave gravel roads and improve shoulders for multimodal safety reasons.

Tagged Passions:streets, travel, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, Development, Bicycles, traffic, and bicycles

The figure below illustrates the methodology used to calculate the oil and gas road deterioration impact fees. To allow variations in the number of wells per pad, the fee calculation is based on two components: a pad construction fee and a well development and production fee. One percent of all costs associated with developing a 4-well pad is attributable to pad construction based on that activity s ESAL generation, and the remaining costs are attributed to well development. All production costs are associated with the well fee.

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:construction, streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, and Development

Road Deterioration Fee Calculation Methodology

Tagged Passions:streets

The oil and gas roadway deterioration fees were calculated by estimating the total roadway deterioration impact costs associated with oil and gas development and production, and then dividing the total cost by the total number of pads and wells. Two additional well characteristics were then factored into the fee calculations:

Due to longer trip lengths and a less developed roadway network in the eastern districts, costs associated with oil and gas were calculated separately for all districts. Because fresh water, produced water, and product pipelines reduce truck trips and thereby reduce roadway impacts, reductions in fees were included for all pipeline combinations. Fees associated with paving gravel roads and improving shoulders for multimodal safety were calculated using the process outlined in the County s Eastern Plains Transportation Impact Fee (EPTIF) study. This was done because these improvements are more trip-based than load-based, and the EPTIF was designed with these types of improvements. This process uses average oil and gas activity trip lengths and estimated daily traffic volumes to apply the EPTIF study s 153.10 / vehicle-mile-traveled fee in creating oil and gas specific fees per pad and per well. The two fees are then added together per pad and per well to arrive at a final fee schedule, as described on the next page. Page vii DRAFT August 2019

Tagged Passions:streets, travel, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, transportation, water, Development, and traffic

Stakeholder Engagement The County provided opportunities for the oil and gas industry to hear about the transportation impact study process, ask questions, and comment on the proposed methodology and assumptions. The following summarize the changes to study assumptions and methodology incorporated as a result of industry comments and subsequent analysis:

Pad Density: Density of oil and gas pads in the western zone of the County was reduced from one per square mile to one per two square miles and the report explains that the number of pads is not a prediction but is used for analytical purposes to calculate the average impact of pads and wells in the study area. Trip Generation: COGA provided local trip generation data from a County operator, which was
Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil and transportation

added as another data point for trip generation data used for the study. Shoulder Improvements and Paving of Gravel Roads: The existing Eastern Plains Transportation

Tagged Passions:streets and transportation

Impact Fee cost per vehicle miles of travel was applied to oil and gas pads and wells to account for these trip-based (not load-based) improvements. Independent Study Guidelines: The fee implementing language will include the option and

guidelines for applicants to submit an independent fee calculation. Very Poor Condition Roads: A reconstruction and overlay option were modeled to handle paved roads in very poor condition and the fee used the lower cost method calculated for different zones and pipeline scenarios. Rural Collectors: Many of the continuous section line roads in the eastern part of the County are currently classified as Rural Collectors. It was determined that pavement variables assigned to these roads was underestimating their service life. It was determined that treating these roads as Rural Arterials rather than Rural Collectors would reduce overlay costs and represent a more reasonable approach, so these roads were treated as Rural Arterials for the fee calculation. Page viii DRAFT August 2019 Oil Gas Roadway Impact Fee Schedule The following table provides the combined maximum oil and gas impact fee schedule that can be adopted corresponding to the estimated impact cost for each new pad and well by pipeline scenario for the three districts, incorporating the changes listed above. Combined Maximum Oil and Gas Roadway Impact Fee Schedule (2019 ) Pipeline Scenario West East-Central Far East Fresh Water Pipeline Produced Water Pipeline Product Pipeline Per Pad Fees n/a n/a n/a 1,112 2,495 468
Tagged Passions:rural, streets, travel, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, Utility, water, and poverty

Per Well Fees - - - 61,960 176,345 48,976 - - 59,840 172,258 46,739 - - 35,448 117,259 36,224 - - 34,789 115,911 34,909 - 33,327 113,171 33,986 - 32,668 111,823 32,671 - 7,369 33,486 22,157 5,113 25,087 19,920

The full report provides additional fee schedules for other oil and gas activities, as well as per-ESAL fees. DRAFT August 2019

Tagged Passions:911 and Fossil Fuels - Oil

1.0 INTRODUCTION Colorado is one of the nation s leading energy producing states. According to the United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), Colorado was the 7th highest state in total energy production in 2016. Oil and gas energy production is the primary source of the state s large output of energy, with Colorado ranking 7th in crude oil production in 2017 and 5th in natural gas production in 2016. These rankings are largely due to the presence of the Niobrara shale formation, which encompasses Arapahoe County. According to the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC), Arapahoe County ranks as the 5th highest oil producing county in the state, while also ranking 14th in natural gas production. The County continues to see an increase in development interest.

Oil and gas drilling and production can impact local road systems and other public infrastructure and services. Given the increase in development interest in recent years, Arapahoe County has commissioned this study to update the calculations conducted in the 2013 Arapahoe County study of potential impacts of oil and gas development and production on the County s road system and to design a fee system to offset increased roadway rehabilitation, maintenance, and safety costs associated with heavy truck traffic from oil and gas activity.
Tagged Passions:boards and commissions, streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, services, Conservation, natural gas, Development, energy, and traffic

Study Purpose This study seeks to understand and quantify the potential impacts of oil and gas development to the County transportation system. This study is not intended to predict oil and gas development location or intensity, but rather to provide County officials with information about the potential impacts to the County s transportation system and associated costs using an informed set of assumptions based on the best available data.

The transportation impacts estimated within this study are used to design and calculate impact fees that will offset the transportation-related impacts of oil and gas development. Arapahoe County has authority derived from state statutes to regulate public roads over which it has jurisdiction. The oil and gas transportation impact fees are designed and structured within these parameters.

Tagged Passions:streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, and Development

Study Area The study area is defined as the unincorporated County land east of E-470 that is not within a defined floodway. Historically, activity has occurred in the western portion of this area, but the eastern portion of the County was also included due to recent exploration activity and the presence of other known fields despite those fields lacking a history of horizontal well development and production. This study considers only unincorporated County land outside defined floodways and with adequate surface space to drill.

Figure 1 shows the study area as described above, with incorporated land and land within floodways removed. Chapter 2 provides additional information as to how the study area was divided and assessed for oil and gas impacts. DRAFT August 2019

Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Development, and history

Figure 1. Study Area

Sources: CDOT, 2018; FEMA, 2017; Arapahoe County, 2019; BLM, 2017

DRAFT August 2019

Tagged Passions:FEMA

Process A process consisting of a series of analytical techniques has been developed and used to achieve the study purpose of assessing the potential impacts to the transportation system, quantifying transportation system needs (maintenance, rehabilitation, and safety), and calculating an appropriate roadway impact fee. Figure 2 summarizes this process and its inputs.

Tagged Passions:transportation

Figure 2. Study Process Diagram The inventory of existing roadway conditions provides a baseline for identifying investment needs that might result from oil and gas truck impacts. The trip generation and vehicle types provide the foundation for assigning trips and vehicle loads to the County roadway network. Finally, the oil and gas activity provides information about development and production patterns applicable to Arapahoe County.

All three primary inputs have been used in the development of a travel model, which assigns both oil and gas trips and loads to individual road segments in the study area. The results of the travel model can also be used to identify mitigation strategies based on roadway maintenance needs and rehabilitation that result in roadway deterioration costs attributed to oil and gas activity. After the proportional costs of road deterioration are calculated, the analysis is combined with a trip-based methodology for calculating the costs of mitigation activities that use the Arapahoe County Eastern Plains Transportation Impact Fee process (paving gravel roads and multi-modal safety improvements). The result is a fee designed to recover these costs during the oil and gas land use application process. Each box in Figure 2 represents a set of calculations, many of which require assumptions because of the uncertainties of oil and gas development in general (e.g., the intensity of development), as well as the development potential in Arapahoe County. Previous studies on the transportation impacts of oil and gas development from across the country were referenced in the creation of these assumptions. Likewise, a series of interviews with key Arapahoe County staff were conducted to better understand current development trends and how oil and gas trucks could potentially impact County roads. Appendix A includes a list of references, and Chapter 3 provides a more in-depth description of the assumptions and analytical processes. DRAFT August 2019

Tagged Passions:streets, travel, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, Development, and investment

Other Energy-Related Uses In addition to oil and gas pads and well, the study was scoped to evaluate transportation fee assessment options for other energy-related uses that are or may be planned in the County. Research summaries and recommendations for these uses follow.

Injection Wells Unlike oil and gas wells or other typical land uses, there will be a small number of injection wells and each can be expected to have unique characteristics relative to location, service area, capacity, and other characteristics. Therefore, it is not practical or efficient to develop a one-size-fits-all injection well impact fee. One injection well, the Saltwater Disposal Facility (SDF), is planned in Arapahoe County. A transportation fee structure that can be considered for this and future injection well facilities is a per truck or tipping fee. The average cost per truck trip would be assessed monthly based on the actual count of trucks entering the site from areas outside the unincorporated County. Solar Farms Several solar farms are currently operating, under construction, or approved by the County. The County has not assessed transportation impact fees on solar farms in the past because they do not generate large volumes of traffic when operating. However, solar farms are similar to oil and gas wells in that a large portion of their traffic impact is caused by heavy vehicles during the construction period.
Tagged Passions:construction, facility, agriculture, Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, energy, and traffic

An approach to incorporating solar farms recommended for discussion would require a traffic study for new developments. The traffic study would require estimates of trip generation and distribution by type of vehicle during construction and operation. The County could either require that the developer provide equivalent single axle load (ESAL) data associated with the trucks or may allow the option of the developer providing truck specifications and the County developing ESAL estimates. An impact fee would be assessed at the time of development, with the cost per ESAL-mile that is calculated for the oil and gas impact fee possibly used as a starting point for fee calculations.

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:construction, agriculture, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, Development, and traffic

Wind Farms Arapahoe County has not received interest in wind farm development due to more favorable wind conditions in adjacent counties. Wind farms have similar characteristics to solar farms in that sizes and types of facilities are highly variable and most of the road impact occurs during construction. If the County were to receive wind farm proposals, a similar approach to the one described for solar farms is recommended.

Biosolids Traffic information was found for one biosolids recycling center: the Valmont Butte Project in Boulder, Colorado. This facility is estimated to generate 145 daily trips. Biosolid material is piped in and treated compost material is trucked out. Since the impact of this type of facility is more like typical land uses with traffic impacts during operation as opposed to during an initial construction period, it is recommended that this use be treated like other industrial uses under the Eastern Plains Transportation Impact Fee program, with fees assessed based on vehicle miles traveled (VMT). DRAFT August 2019
Tagged Passions:construction, facility, streets, agriculture, travel, development, industrial, transportation, program, Development, recycling, and traffic

2.
OIL GAS ASSUMPTIONS FOR ARAPAHOE COUNTY Oil Gas Development Process Overview There are five stages in the development and operation of an oil or gas well:

Leasing and exploration Obtaining mineral rights and developing a well drilling program. Pad construction Preparing the site, including building the access road and the pad upon which wells will be drilled. Drilling The process of drilling the well to the desired depth and completing the requisite

Tagged Passions:construction, leasing, streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, program, Development, and Natural Resources - Coal

number of horizontal bores. Completion Converting the well system to a producing well, typically by fracturing the shale

and completing the production well requirements, and removing produced water from the site. Production Extracting, storing, and distributing the resource.

For the purposes of this study, impacts have been estimated for all stages above, except the leasing and exploration stage. More detail about these stages is provided below.
Tagged Passions:leasing, utility, Utility, and water

Pad Construction The first stage of development is pad construction. In this stage, crews build an access road to the drilling site and construct a well pad. This process requires building a gravel road and grading a pad site generally five-plus acres in area. The number of wells per pad may range significantly; however, the road and the pad require roughly the same amount of construction equipment, materials, and truck trips regardless of the number of wells.

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:construction, equipment, streets, development, transportation, materials, Development, and grading

Drilling The next stage of development is the drilling stage. This stage requires one drilling rig to drill the well bore into the earth and continue horizontally in the direction of the intended extraction locations. In the Niobrara Shale, typical wells reach depths of between 6,000 to 8,000 feet and can extend 2 or more miles horizontally into the shale formation. If the site is a multi-well pad, the same single rig generally drills all wells on the pad. While the drilling rig transport is sensitive to the number of pads constructed, transportation of other materials including drilling fluid and materials, drilling equipment, casing, and drill pipe is all well sensitive, meaning each well will require additional materials. Thus, the number of trips required to transport the drilling materials will increase with each well on the pad.

Tagged Passions:equipment, development, transportation, materials, and Development

Active drilling rig near Greeley, Colorado.

Source: Julie Dermansky for Earthworks, 2014 DRAFT August 2019

Completion Once drilling is complete, wells must be completed using hydraulic fracturing known as fracking. The drilling rig is replaced with a multitude of hydraulic fracturing equipment, including blender trucks, pump trucks, water tanks, produced water trucks, fracture sand, and chemical totes. Most of the completion equipment is well-sensitive, meaning the number of trips will increase depending on the number of wells on a pad.

Most development truck trips are used to transport fresh frack water to the site and produced flowback wastewater from the site. Well completion typically requires millions of gallons of water as an input. Once a well is fracked, it also produces large quantities of wastewater. Since typical water trucks have capacities between 5,000 and 6,000 gallons, a large number of trips are required to transport fresh water and produced water. An ever more popular alternative to tanker trucks for transporting water to and from the site is the use of surface water pipelines. Water piped to the pad for drilling and fracking is stored in modular large volume tanks. A pad site will have significantly fewer truck trips if the site can use pipelines for water transportation. To complete a well, workers first use a fracking gun to penetrate through the well casing and fracture the shale at the furthest depths of the well. Once the fracking gun penetrates the well in the appropriate areas, a highly pressurized mixture of water and chemicals is pumped into the fractures starting at the deepest end of the well. The fracking fluid flows through the fractures and begins to crack the shale along natural weaknesses in the rock. Proppant, usually a sand mixture, is introduced into the fractures to keep the cracks open and help oil and gas escape into the well. The workers use a series of plugs to maintain the pressure of a fracked segment and continue to frack the shale along the horizontal well. During this stage, millions of gallons of water are pumped at high pressures into the shale and then subsequently retrieved. Under COGCC guidelines, all water used in this process is either recycled or properly disposed of under Commission regulations, primarily through injection wells. Once each arm of a well is sufficiently fractured, the plugs are removed and the well is ready for oil or gas production.

Tagged Passions:gun control, drugs, regulation, equipment, sewer, boards and commissions, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, fire departments and districts, transportation, water, Development, commercial, Gun Control, fracking, and FRACKING

Completion rig and trucks on a well pad in Weld County, September 2014. Source: Sangosti/The Denver Post, 2015

Drilling and completion stage technology: horizontal gas well with hydraulic fracking.

Tagged Passions:transportation, Technology, technology, fracking, and FRACKING

Source: BBC News, 2015

DRAFT August 2019

Production Once the well is complete, the well pad transitions to the production phase, pumping oil or gas and produced water from the well for storage, disposal, or distribution. As oil and gas is pumped from the well, the contents are sent to machines that separate the oil, gas, water, and other gases. The produced water is most commonly injected into underground injection wells, which often requires transport by pipeline or truck. The well must maintain optimal pressure to continue the production of energy resources and is monitored constantly. If any abnormality is indicated, the off-site well maintenance crew is automatically notified. Production trips continue throughout the life of the well, possibly up to 25 years. In areas of highly clustered energy development, pipelines may be constructed to transport resources and produced water away from the site to common holding or distribution facilities.

Location and Density As noted in the definition of the study area in Chapter 1, the study area consists of unincorporated lands outside of any floodway east of E-470. No areas west of E-470 were considered given the dense urbanized nature of areas west of E-470 and lack of known resources to access. Dividing into Districts Little development has historically occurred in the eastern portion of the study area, with most activity being exploratory wells or traditional vertical wells. It is also further away from existing oil and gas facilities and has a less developed roadway network that could potentially need significant upgrades to handle oil and gas traffic. To track the potential difference in cost per pad and well, the unincorporated land making up the study area was divided into three districts: West (E-470 to Brick-Center Road), East- Central (Brick-Center Road to Price Road), and Far East (east of Price Road).
Tagged Passions:streets, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, transportation, water, Development, energy, and traffic

Pad Density and Zones Given the uncertainty of where oil and gas pads might be developed, one-mile sections that intersect unincorporated Arapahoe County land within the study area served as the mechanism to distribute pads. A density of one pad per two square-mile sections was used in the West, while a density of one pad per six square-mile area was used in the East-Central and a density of one pad per 24 square-mile area was used in the Far East. The lower density in the eastern districts was used out of concern that a higher density like that used in the West could overstate the transportation needs in areas that have seen little development and has numerous roads that would require significant improvements to handle heavy oil and gas traffic. Eastern densities were derived from observed well/pad densities of areas with similar formations and activity levels along the northern Front Range, including Weld County.

After removing sections covered by municipalities and floodways/bodies of water from the study area, as well as sections with urbanized development that cannot accommodate state setbacks or an access road, a total of 75 pad zones cover the remaining unincorporated land eligible for oil and gas development in the West, while 44 pad zones cover the East-Central and 9 pad zones cover the Far East. Figure 3 shows the study area divided into these 128 pad zones. For this study, each pad zone contains one oil and gas pad. Chapter 3 provides additional information as to how these pad zones were used and how pads were placed in each zone. DRAFT August 2019

Tagged Passions:streets, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, transportation, water, Development, and traffic

Figure 3. Pad Zones

No additional detail provided

Sources: CDOT, 2018; Arapahoe County, 2019; BLM, 2017

DRAFT August 2019

Well Density Another important factor in estimating the impacts of oil and gas activity is the number of wells per pad. Consultation with County oil and gas staff and industry stakeholders yielded the need to use a different well density per district to reflect fewer wells expected further east in the study area. A density of 10 wells per pad was assumed for the West, which aligns closely with data acquired in other recent oil and gas impact studies conducted by the consultant team along the Front Range. Well density was scaled down to 6 wells per pad in the East-Central and 2 wells per pad in the Far East.

Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil and services

Other Oil Gas Assumptions Phase Stage Duration Also important is the duration it takes to develop a pad and its wells. The 2017 update of the Boulder County Oil and Gas Roadway Impact Study found that the duration to develop a pad and its wells has decreased compared to the 2013 study for Arapahoe County. The estimated typical durations for the three development stages from that study are listed below, which are used in this study.

Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, and Development

Pad construction 5 to 7 days Drilling 3 to 7 days per well Completion 2 to 5 days per well

Tagged Passions:construction

Multi-well pads have an extended development schedule, depending on the number of wells to be drilled.

Tagged Passions:development and Development

Once wells are producing, they can be active for up to 25 years or more. However, according to the 2017 Boulder County study, production significantly tapers off after 10 years, after which trips generated are marginal. This study uses this 10-year timeframe for analyzing traffic impacts of the production phase.

Pipelines County staff reported an increase in interest by oil and gas operators to utilize pipelines to move fresh water, produced water, and produced product. Fresh water pipelines are the most commonly used pipeline for oil and gas development, as developers typically use temporary pipe that can be laid on top of the ground surface, often in ditches. These pipelines can easily be installed and removed after development is complete. Surface frack water pipeline in Weld County Source: Colorado Public Radio, photo courtesy of Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, 2014 DRAFT August 2019 During and after the fracking process, a significant amount of water rises to the surface as flowback/produced water. According to the COGCC Environmental Unit s exploration and production waste management description, the COGCC requires oil and gas operators to properly store, handle, transport, treat, and recycle or dispose of waste from development. In the past, developers would use evaporation pits to dispose of produced water, but they are no longer approved by COGCC in the Front Range. In areas along the Front Range, produced water is now most commonly disposed of via underground injection control (UIC) wells. Produced water may also be recycled or processed at a commercial facility. To transport this flowback produced during well completion to an approved facility, developers may utilize underground pipelines in place of tanker trucks. Underground wastewater pipelines are most commonly used by large developers with significant land holdings. Developers with smaller land holdings are less likely to use wastewater disposal pipelines since they wouldn t necessarily be able to take advantage of the major infrastructure investment for multiple contiguous development sites. However, some developers have been known to enter into agreements to use each other s facilities and infrastructure, including pipelines and UIC wells. Pipelines to transport product during the production phase are similar in their requirements as produced water pipelines, but require even greater infrastructure investments, thus they usually require a higher density of pads and wells to make them economically viable. However, such pipelines may be viable for Arapahoe County should oil and gas activity continue to increase in the County and neighboring Adams County. As discussed in the following chapter, the availability of pipelines can have significant implications for truck traffic to/from pad sites, and thus their overall roadway impacts and costs. This study considers the impacts on Arapahoe County s transportation system of no pipelines versus reduced truck impacts with the addition of fresh water, produced water, and/or product pipelines being used. Trench for sub-surface produced water pipeline in Weld County Source: Colorado Public Radio, photo by Lesley McClurg, 2014 DRAFT August 2019
Tagged Passions:radio, facility, sewer, sites, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, transportation, water, environment, Development, investment, commercial, fracking, FRACKING, and traffic

3.
MODELING TRAVEL DEMAND OF OIL GAS ACTIVITY Travel Demand Model Methodology A travel model has been developed using VISUM software to estimate the impacts to the Arapahoe County roadway system from oil and gas activity. VISUM is a GIS-based computer program that utilizes collected data to assign traffic to a network based on trip generation, trip distribution, and roadway network characteristics. Although the travel model includes roadways outside the jurisdiction of Arapahoe County (US and State Highways, and municipal roads) to allow trips to connect to their external origins/destinations, the transportation impacts (and associated improvement needs and costs) have been assessed only on roads under the responsibility of Arapahoe County referred to as the study area roadways or Arapahoe County responsible roads.

Oil and gas development will result in increased traffic on the roadway network (vehicle-trips), as well as increased loads on the County s roads from the many heavy vehicle trips associated with the industry. For this reason, the VISUM model has been used to assign not only vehicle trips, but also loads as measured in equivalent single-axle loads (ESALs). The impact of heavy vehicles is dependent on a roadway s surface type: flexible pavement (asphalt) versus unpaved. Impacts for flexible pavements are generally dependent on loads and their distribution on a truck, while unpaved roads are dependent on vehicle volumes instead of loads. The trip generation characteristics for the oil and gas development phase are substantially different from the trip generation characteristics during the on-going well production phase. Therefore, the travel model has been run separately for the two phases.

Tagged Passions:streets, travel, GIS, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, program, Development, information technology, traffic, and Information Technology

Appendix B lists other assumptions used to develop the travel model. The model was also used to test the impact of using pipelines for fresh and produced water, as well as for transport of produced product, the results of which are explored in the fee calculation chapter Chapter 6.

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:travel, utility, Utility, and water

Inventory of Study Area Roadways The first step in modeling oil and gas travel in Arapahoe County was to understand the existing conditions of the study area roadways. The Arapahoe County responsible roads, shown on Figure 4, total 327 centerline miles for the study area. The following sections describe data that were collected on this roadway system.

Surface Conditions Of the study area roadways, approximately 53.8 percent (by centerline mileage) are unpaved, 33.0 percent are asphalt, and 13.2 percent are RotoPaved a low-cost asphalt-like surface made of recycled asphalt. Figure 5 shows the surface type for each study area roadway. The surface condition, including the surface type and the remaining service life, significantly affects how well a particular roadway segment can accommodate heavy truck traffic. The addition of several heavy trucks will, over time, cause a roadway to age at a greater rate than was originally anticipated. To estimate the degree to which the need for improvements on these roads would be accelerated, and to provide the cost of these improvements, the pavement condition index (PCI) of each paved road segment was obtained. The PCI of each road segment was used to apply a rating of either Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, or Poor condition. Figure 6 displays ratings for each paved study area roadway. DRAFT August 2019
Tagged Passions:streets, travel, Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, poverty, and traffic

Figure 4. Study Area Road Network

Tagged Passions:streets

Sources: CDOT, 2018; Arapahoe County, 2019

DRAFT August 2019

Figure 5. Surface Types

No additional detail provided

Sources: CDOT, 2018; Arapahoe County, 2019

DRAFT August 2019

Figure 6. Existing Pavement Conditions

Sources: CDOT, 2018; Arapahoe County, 2019

DRAFT August 2019 Shoulders Varying geometric configurations affect how well a roadway could accommodate the heavy truck traffic associated with the oil and gas industry in conjunction with other roadway users. Wider shoulders provide safety benefits for all roadway users: they serve as a countermeasure to run-off-road crashes and provide a stopping area for breakdowns or other emergencies. Shoulders also provide space for bicyclists separate from the travel lanes. Because road widening for shoulders was included in the Eastern Plains Transportation Impact Fee, this improvement type is part of the trip-based fee element that is being added as part of this study. Thus, road widening for shoulders was not included as part of the modeling and cost calculation process described at the beginning of this chapter.

Tagged Passions:streets, travel, Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, and traffic

Traffic Counts Increased maintenance of unpaved roads as a result of oil and gas activity is primarily triggered by daily traffic volumes rather than the level of loads experienced. This kind of mitigation was not part of the Eastern Plains Transportation Impact Fee, thus it was retained as part of the modeling process.

Existing daily traffic counts on unpaved roads were gathered where available from Arapahoe County s database, as well as from CDOT, ranging from 2014 to 2017. An additional twelve counts were conducted during the fall of 2017 by the County. The vehicles per day (vpd) of any study area unpaved road used by the travel model without an available count were estimated based on their location and level of connectivity, which was reviewed by County staff for reasonableness. Figure 7 illustrates count data and count estimates for all unpaved roads that were identified as routes for oil and gas traffic. Counts are used as the background traffic to determine the possibility of paving with oil and gas traffic added.
Tagged Passions:streets, travel, Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, and traffic

Other Roadway Characteristics Other important roadway characteristics for modeling oil and gas traffic include road segment length and speed limits. These factors play into the model s shortest path routing decisions for oil and gas trips. The number of lanes and paved widths of roadways were also collected and used to calculate the cost of maintenance required as a result of oil and gas impacts.

DRAFT August 2019
Tagged Passions:streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, and traffic

Figure 7. Vehicles per Day on Unpaved Study Area Roads Receiving Oil Gas Traffic

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, and traffic

Sources: CDOT, 2018; Arapahoe County, 2019

DRAFT August 2019 Trip Origins/Destinations Trip origins and destinations were identified by determining where oil and gas trips will likely be traveling to and from. For all trips, the pad site serves as either the point of origin or the destination. Trips will either involve a truck delivering items to the site, removing elements to an off-site location, in transit (empty) to pick up a load or return from delivery, or transporting workers and machinery to and from the pad. All wells were assumed to be located within the study area, while locations of the other end of oil and gas trips were estimated by researching their trip purposes. There are four primary trip purposes for oil and gas development, which each uniquely impact where oil and gas trucks travel: fresh water delivery, produced water removal, equipment transport, and transport of other materials. The following sections provide further detail on pad placement and assumptions regarding the origin/destination by trip type. Oil and Gas Pads The study models a total of 128 pads to estimate impacts, translating into 1,032 wells using the wells per pad assumptions noted in Chapter 2. The pad in each pad zone of the model was located in the most open, least developed, and unincorporated location outside of the floodway and nearest to a road for access. Furthermore, with so much open land available in the two eastern districts, a conservative approach was used: pads in those zones were located to try to consolidate accesses onto major gravel roads rather than a spattering of numerous gravel roads in order to take advantage of paving one road rather than numerous minor gravel roads if volumes warranted paving. The most current satellite imagery in Google Earth was analyzed to conduct this placement process. The purpose of placing one pad per zone is not to predict the level or location of development; rather, it is intended to derive the average potential impacts of an oil and gas pad regardless of location within the study area. Chapter 6 further explains how this assumption goes into the calculation of impact fees. Fresh Water Water is a key resource in the well drilling process and during the high-pressure fracturing stage, where water is mixed with sand and chemicals. For development in Arapahoe County, fresh water could be purchased from local water providers willing to provide water for oil and gas development, private landowners, or outside the County. Conversations with the larger water providers in the County identified the only water districts to supply fresh water for oil and gas activity as the City of Aurora Water and Rangeview Metropolitan District. Aurora Water noted that additional approvals from the Aurora City Council and the water district would be needed to transport water outside the district, meaning supply for operations in Arapahoe County is limited. Access to this water was assumed to occur at the Aurora Reservoir. For Rangeview, access points to water facilities were acquired from their website. Additionally, a private landowner east of Bennett who has supplied fresh water to the County and oil and gas operations in the past was identified by County staff as a potential source as well. Conversations with the landowner revealed he provided water to the industry in the past, but it had been some time since this has occurred, though he would be willing to again if approached. He too confirmed that Rangeview would be the primary source for the study area.

Tagged Passions:Google, equipment, council, streets, travel, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, public safety, transportation, materials, water, purchasing, and Development

To place these water sources, again a conservative approach was used: locations were individually assessed to determine where the nearest and/or most convenient access might be to these types of water sources, with access points consolidated where appropriate.

DRAFT August 2019 Depending on pricing and transport costs, it is conceivable that fresh water could be purchased from farther outside of Arapahoe County; however, water conservation rules often restrict where water can be transported to. Given the uncertainty of these factors, it was assumed that oil and gas developers in the West district would acquire the majority of their water from Rangeview (90 percent) and transport the remaining water from Aurora Water (5 percent) or areas outside of the County (5 percent). Due to the scarcity of water sources in the eastern districts, it was assumed that less water would be sourced locally. East- Central pad zones were assumed to acquire half of their water from Rangeview, 45 percent from outside the County, and 5 percent from the private landowner. Far East pad zones were assumed to acquire most of their water from outside the County (90 percent), with remaining water from the private landowner (10 percent). Figure 8 illustrates the water source assumptions, including source locations. Produced Water Water is also a major byproduct of both the development and production phases. Produced water from the fracking process and from the extraction of oil and gas is generated and must be appropriately treated. Because COGCC regulations restrict the use of evaporation ponds, a large majority of produced water is disposed via underground injection control (UIC) wells. Colorado has roughly 800 UIC wells, with most located in Weld County. Planned injection wells in Arapahoe County were not included given that they had yet to be approved at the time of this study and approval could not be guaranteed. Four of the top receiving UIC wells as calculated in the 2018 Adams County oil and gas impact study were identified to include in the model. Figure 9 shows the location of these four UIC wells and which pad zones were linked to each disposal site.
Tagged Passions:regulation, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, water, Conservation, purchasing, Development, fracking, and FRACKING

Equipment The equipment required for oil and gas development including the drilling rig, the well structure, pumps, well casings, fracking tanks, and construction equipment could come from any location where oil and gas companies have operations, or where contractors providing such services are located. Equipment used by oil and gas development in the region surrounding Arapahoe County was identified to exist primarily in Weld County along the US 85 corridor. However, some equipment, particularly equipment not unique to oil and gas, could come from the Denver area given the density of these providers in a large urban area.

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:construction, equipment, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, services, Development, fracking, corridor, and FRACKING

To implement the above equipment assumptions into the model, all equipment trips were sent to/from the north/northwest to Weld County and Denver.

An oil derrick being hauled. Source: Colorado Motor Carriers Association
Tagged Passions:equipment and Fossil Fuels - Oil

Transport of well equipment. Source: Colorado Motor Carriers Association

DRAFT August 2019
Tagged Passions:equipment

Figure 8. Fresh Water Sources

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:utility, Utility, and water

Sources: CDOT, 2018; Arapahoe County, 2019; Rangeview Metropolitan District, 2017

DRAFT August 2019

Figure 9. Produced Water Disposal Assumptions

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:utility, Utility, and water

Sources: CDOT, 2018; Arapahoe County, 2017; COGCC, 2017

DRAFT August 2019

Materials Oil and gas development requires a variety of other materials in addition to water. Gravel, sand, piping, cement, chemicals, and other construction materials must be trucked to the site at different stages of the development phase. These resources would likely come from where supply is the greatest, trucking distance is shortest, and prices are the lowest. Because these factors create a great deal of uncertainty as to where a resource may arrive from, it has been assumed that materials would arrive in a similar fashion as oil and gas equipment since material providers would locate around active oil and gas areas to better provide their services. Thus, all materials were assumed to be sent to/from the northwest, such as Weld County and/or Denver.

Production The production phase primarily consists of maintenance trips and trips for transporting product and produced water. Maintenance trips were assumed to be similar to equipment, materials, and worker trips. Thus, all of those trips were assumed to be sent to/from the northwest, such as Weld County. The same assumption was made for transporting product, since oil and gas handling facilities are likely aligned with the other oil and gas services. Produced water trips were handled in the same fashion as described earlier for the development phase.

Trip Generation As described in Chapter 2, oil and gas development involves three stages: pad construction, drilling, and completion. Each stage involves different volumes and types of trucks. Once operating, a pad enters the production phase, which generates less demand on the road network than the development phase, but continues to generate impacts for as long as wells are active. The following sections document the trip generation assumptions developed for this study. Development Trip Generation Oil and gas development requires the transport of heavy equipment to the well site to build access roads, construct a well pad, and transport a drilling rig. Heavy trucks are also required to bring fresh water to the well site, and transport produced water and extracted resources off-site. The 2017 update of the Boulder County Oil and Gas Roadway Impact Study developed a per-pad and per-well trip generation profile from studies conducted around the country. This Arapahoe County study added two additional sources from the Texas A M Transportation Institute (TTI) and input from the Colorado Oil and Gas Association (COGA) to further update trip generation assumptions. Table 1 provides the estimates from these sources examining vehicle trip generation by well development stage. The trips of each study are averaged across each stage of development and then summed to calculate trip generation figures in the far-right column. Production related trips, on the other hand, will continue for the duration of the well s productive life.
Tagged Passions:construction, equipment, streets, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, transportation, materials, services, water, and Development

These data suggest that the development of a typical pad and single well will generate 3,138 trips during the development period, largely related to water delivery and removal. For sites that have access to fresh and/or produced water pipelines, the total number of development trips will decrease accordingly. Table 2 illustrates how the availability of water pipelines will affect the total estimated truck trips during the development phase. Note that Miscellaneous trips have been folded into the Completion Rig and Crew trip type as crew trips based on interpretation of data received from COGA.

DRAFT August 2019

Tagged Passions:sites, utility, development, Utility, transportation, water, and Development

Table 1. National Data on Trip Generation During Pad and Well Development

Stage Activity Machemehl et al. 2016 NDSU 2014 RESI 2014 UDOT 2013 TTI 2015 TTI 2016 COGA 2019

Tagged Passions:development and Development

Average 1 pad, 1

well Construction Pad and Road Construction 80 160 230 1,300 260 70 1,190 470 Drilling Drilling Rig and Crew - - 404 306 564 - 546 455 Drilling Fluid and Materials - 150 45 340 26 59 70 115 Drilling Equipment 50 130 45 34 20 54 70 58 Completion Completion Rig - 6 21 8 10 - - 11 Completion Equipment 25 30 5 24 26 - 290 67 Fracturing Equipment 125 260 175 166 94 74 86 140 Fracture Water 1,486 900 1,346 828 - 694 - 1,051 Fracture Sand and Chemicals 200 200 23 166 504 90 263 207 Produced Water Disposal 594 450 300 828 676 173 122 449 Miscellaneous - - 85 - - - 144 115 Total Development Trips 3,138

Tagged Passions:construction, equipment, streets, utility, development, Utility, materials, water, and Development

Sources: Mechemal, P.E., et al., 2016; North Dakota State University (NDSU) Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute, 2014; Regional Economic Studies Institute, 2014; Utah Department of Transportation, 2013; Texas A M Transportation Institute, 2015 2016, Colorado Oil and Gas Association, 2019

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, and university

Table 2. Impact of Water Pipelines on Average Development Trip Generation (1 pad, 1 well)

Stage Activity No Water Pipelines Fresh Water Pipelines Produced Water Pipelines Fresh Produced Water Pipelines
Tagged Passions:utility, development, Utility, water, and Development

Construction Pad and Road Construction 470 470 470 470 Drilling Drilling Rig and Crew 456 455 455 455 Drilling Fluid and Materials 114 115 115 115 Drilling Equipment 58 58 58 58 Completion Completion Rig and Crew 126 126 126 126 Completion Equipment 67 67 67 67 Fracturing Equipment 140 140 140 140 Fracture Water 1,051 - 1,051 - Fracture Sand and Chemicals 207 207 207 207 Produced Water Disposal 449 449 - - Total Development Trips 3.138 2,087 2,689 1,638

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:construction, equipment, streets, utility, development, Utility, materials, water, and Development

Source: FHU BBC, 2017

It is important to note that each truck trip reflects a one-way trip, so that all trips to and from the development site are included. This distinction is crucial in subsequent stages of the analysis when, for example, the roadway impacts are examined for a truck that arrives to the development site with a full load of water, but leaves empty. Because of this, trips in Table 2 and in all tables going forward are rounded to an even number. Production Trip Generation There are a number of factors that determine trip generation during the production stage such as the nature of the field, success of wells, and storage capacity for produced water and resource at the pad. The trips primarily consist of maintenance trips to check on the wells and tanker trucks to haul produced water and product to off-site facilities. DRAFT August 2019 The 2017 update of the Boulder County Oil and Gas Roadway Impact Study found that produced water and product production is at its peak in the first year of a well s production life, declining quickly over a 10-year period, after which production and truck trips are marginal. Applying the declining production to the initial truck trips estimated at the start of production yields an average of about two trips per day per well during the 10-year production horizon, or 730 trips annually per well, which aligns closely with findings from a report for the Texas Department of Transportation on the Barnett Shale. Figure 10 presents the production decline from the Boulder County study. Figure 10. Production Decline in Niobrara Wells Source: FHU BBC, 2017 Original Source: The Niobrara News, 2014; Peters, 2017 Multi-Well Pad Site Trip Generation Data from the studies used in Table 1 were used to adapt trip generation estimates from the one-pad, one-well format to the one-pad, 10-well/6-well/2-well configurations assumed for this study. This scaling will affect traffic generation and the traffic profile associated with drilling activity by increasing well-sensitive trips, such as fracking water and drilling fluid hauling, while pad-sensitive trips for construction and drilling rig transport remain constant. It is worth noting that the total costs are divided to determine the necessary fee to offset the costs per pad and per well, so a similar result would occur with other well densities. Table 3 presents the trip sensitivity by oil and gas activity.

Tagged Passions:construction, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, transportation, water, Development, fracking, FRACKING, and traffic

Table 3. Trip Sensitivity by Activity Stage Activity Trip Sensitivity

No additional detail provided

Construction Pad and Road Construction Pad-Sensitive Drilling Drilling Rig and Crew Pad Well-Sensitive Drilling Fluid and Materials Well-Sensitive Drilling Equipment Well-Sensitive Completion Completion Rig and Crew Pad Well-Sensitive Completion Equipment Pad-Sensitive Fracturing Equipment Pad-Sensitive Fracture Water Well-Sensitive Fracture Sand and Chemicals Well-Sensitive Produced Water Disposal Well-Sensitive Total Development Trips (one-time) Varies Total Production Trips (annual) Well-Sensitive

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:construction, equipment, streets, utility, development, Utility, materials, water, and Development

Source: FHU BBC, 2017

No additional detail provided

0
20 40 60 80

100 120

1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Da ily P ro du ct io n

Year of Well Production

DRAFT August 2019 By segregating truck trips by development stage and activity, the total truck trips for various configurations of pads and wells were estimated, as well as estimates for a pad based on the availability of pipelines. The activity-based number of trips for the three well-pad configurations are displayed in Table 4 through Table 11 for pads with no pipelines, as well as trips for pads under the pipeline scenarios made up of different combinations using fresh water, produced water, and product pipelines. These configurations serve as the basis for the trip generation used by the travel demand model when determining how many trips, and their associated loads, should be distributed and assigned to Arapahoe County s road network. Development phase trips range from as high as 22,308 (10-well pad, no pipelines) to as low as 2,320 (2-well pad, water pipelines). Production phase trips range from as high as 7,300 annually (10-well pad, no pipelines) to as low as 730 annually (2-well pad, pipelines).
Tagged Passions:streets, travel, utility, development, Utility, transportation, water, and Development

Table 4. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration No Pipelines

Stage Activity 10-Well Pad 6-Well Pad 2-Well Pad Construction Pad and Road Construction 470 470 470 Drilling Drilling Rig and Crew 1,680 1,136 592 Drilling Fluid and Materials 1,140 684 228 Drilling Equipment 580 348 116 Completion Completion Rig and Crew 1,152 696 240 Completion Equipment 66 66 66 Fracturing Equipment 140 140 140 Fracture Water 10,240 6,144 2,048 Fracture Sand and Chemicals 2,340 1,404 468 Produced Water Disposal 4,500 2,700 900 Total Development Trips (one-time) 22,308 13,788 5,268 Total Production Trips (annual) 7,300 4,380 1,460
Tagged Passions:construction, equipment, streets, utility, development, Utility, materials, water, and Development

Table 5. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Fresh Water Pipelines

10-Well Pad 6-Well Pad 2-Well Pad
Tagged Passions:utility, Utility, and water

470 470 470 1,680 1,136 592 1,140 684 228 580 348 116

1,152 696 240 66 66 66

140 140 140 0 0 0

2,340 1,404 468 4,500 2,700 900 12,068 7,644 3,220 7,300 4,380 1,460

Table 6. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Produced Water Pipelines

Stage Activity 10-Well Pad 6-Well Pad 2-Well Pad Construction Pad and Road Construction 470 470 470 Drilling Drilling Rig and Crew 1,680 1,136 592 Drilling Fluid and Materials 1,140 684 228 Drilling Equipment 580 348 116 Completion Completion Rig and Crew 1,152 696 240 Completion Equipment 66 66 66 Fracturing Equipment 140 140 140 Fracture Water 10,240 6,144 2,048 Fracture Sand and Chemicals 2,340 1,404 468 Produced Water Disposal 0 0 0 Total Development Trips (one-time) 17,808 11,088 4,368 Total Production Trips (annual) 5,730 3,438 1,146
Tagged Passions:construction, equipment, streets, utility, development, Utility, materials, water, and Development

Table 7. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Fresh Produced Water Pipelines

10-Well Pad 6-Well Pad 2-Well Pad
Tagged Passions:utility, Utility, and water

470 470 470 1,680 1,136 592 1,140 684 228 580 348 116

1,152 696 240 66 66 66

140 140 140 0 0 0

2,340 1,404 468 0 0 0 7,568 4,944 2,320 5,730 3,438 1,146 DRAFT August 2019

Table 8. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Product Pipelines

Stage Activity 10-Well Pad 6-Well Pad 2-Well Pad Construction Pad and Road Construction 470 470 470 Drilling Drilling Rig and Crew 1,680 1,136 592 Drilling Fluid and Materials 1,140 684 228 Drilling Equipment 580 348 116 Completion Completion Rig and Crew 1,152 696 240 Completion Equipment 66 66 66 Fracturing Equipment 140 140 140 Fracture Water 10,240 6,144 2,048 Fracture Sand and Chemicals 2,340 1,404 468 Produced Water Disposal 4,500 2,700 900 Total Development Trips (one-time) 22,308 13,788 5,268 Total Production Trips (annual) 5,220 3,132 1,044
Tagged Passions:construction, equipment, streets, utility, development, Utility, materials, water, and Development

Table 9. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Fresh Water Product Pipelines

10-Well Pad 6-Well Pad 2-Well Pad
Tagged Passions:utility, Utility, and water

470 470 470 1,680 1,136 592 1,140 684 228 580 348 116

1,152 696 240 66 66 66

140 140 140 0 0 0

2,340 1,404 468 4,500 2,700 900 12,068 7,644 3,220 5,220 3,132 1,044

Table 10. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Produced Water Product Pipelines

Stage Activity 10-Well Pad 6-Well Pad 2-Well Pad Construction Pad and Road Construction 470 470 470 Drilling Drilling Rig and Crew 1,680 1,136 592 Drilling Fluid and Materials 1,140 684 228 Drilling Equipment 580 348 116 Completion Completion Rig and Crew 1,152 696 240 Completion Equipment 66 66 66 Fracturing Equipment 140 140 140 Fracture Water 10,240 6,144 2,048 Fracture Sand and Chemicals 2,340 1,404 468 Produced Water Disposal 0 0 0 Total Development Trips (one-time) 17,808 11,088 4,368 Total Production Trips (annual) 3,650 2,190 730
Tagged Passions:construction, equipment, streets, utility, development, Utility, materials, water, and Development

Table 11. Trip Generation Estimates by Pad Configuration Fresh Water, Produced Water, Product Pipelines

10-Well Pad 6-Well Pad 2-Well Pad
Tagged Passions:utility, Utility, and water

470 470 470 1,680 1,136 592 1,140 684 228 580 348 116

1,152 696 240 66 66 66

140 140 140 0 0 0

2,340 1,404 468 0 0 0 7,568 4,944 2,320 3,650 2,190 730 DRAFT August 2019

Truck Typology The number of truck trips might be what is most visible to the public when it comes to oil and gas development, but the weight and how it is distributed across a truck is what impacts paved roadway surfaces the most. To analyze impacts on a roadway, an ESAL factor is derived for each vehicle. Roadways are designed according to an estimated number of ESALs it will experience within a given timeframe.

A variety of vehicle types are used for oil and gas activities, many of which are specialized and/or of significant weight, resulting in ESAL factors greater than many typical truck types. Trucks often differ between manufacturers and evolve as drilling techniques quickly advance. In order to determine how oil and gas trucks impact roadways, it s important to understand as much as possible the different types of trucks used, their weights and configurations, and volumes within each development activity.
Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, and Development

Truck Types There are numerous vehicle types used in oil and gas development and operations. Although many studies and reports document truck trip generation for oil and gas activities, many do not provide significant detail on the types of trucks used or how their weight is distributed across each axle an important detail in calculating a truck s impact on roadway surfaces. Some of the resources consulted provide both axle and weight characteristics, but most provided only partial information, and required estimations based on other similar configurations. A combination of resources from the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), Rio Blanco and Arapahoe counties, North Dakota State University (NDSU), the North Dakota Department of Transportation (NDDOT), and equipment manufacturers such as Putzmeister were consulted to determine truck types and the following characteristics: axle configurations, weight configurations (total empty and full, and per axle), and level of impact expressed as ESAL factors.

Table 12 provides a complete list of trucks estimated to be used for oil and gas activity in this study. Some of the trucks listed are specific truck types by unique names, while others are generic to help generalize otherwise variable names and types used, and to allow for similar vehicles to be grouped together and applied to multiple development stages and activities. In total, nearly forty unique truck types were identified through this research effort.
Tagged Passions:equipment, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, Development, and university

Table 12. Types of Trucks Used for Oil and Gas Activity

Acid Pump Derrick Mud Boat Shaker Skid Acid Tanker Draw Works Mud Pump Shaker Tank/Pit Cement Pump Frac Tank Mud Tank Substructure, etc. Cement Truck Fuel Tanker Oil Tanker Suction Tank Chemical Tanker Generator House Pickup Tool Room / Junk Box Choke Manifold Gravel Haul Truck Pipe Haul Truck VFD House Construction Equipment Haul Truck Hydraulic Unit Pump Truck Water Tanker
Tagged Passions:construction, equipment, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, Utility, fire departments and districts, transportation, water, and boating

Control Van Light Plant Sand Haul Truck Wireline

Crown Section MCC House Screen House Workover Rig
Tagged Passions:transportation and plant

Sources: North Dakota Department of Transportation, 2006; RPI Consulting, LLC, 2008; La Plata County, 2002; Renegade Oil Gas Company, LLC, 2012; Bureau of Land Management, 2008; Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute, 2012; Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute, 2013

DRAFT August 2019 Truck Impacts All of the truck trips presented earlier in this chapter can have varying levels of impact. The load impact of oil and gas trucks can be as much as 8,000 (typical water tanker) to 23,000 (specialized vehicle) times that of a passenger car on an asphalt road depending on truck configurations. To account for the load impacts, ESALs for each truck type listed in Table 12 have been estimated for flexible (asphalt) surfaces, and as fully loaded and/or empty depending on the truck s purpose, based on the assumed axle and weight configurations. These ESAL factors were estimated based on Pavement Interactive s ESAL equations for flexible surfaces, which produce ESAL factors consistent with the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Guide for Design of Pavement Structures that defines ESALs for different generic truck configurations. The axle and weight configuration of a truck is important when determining a truck s total impact. The equations used to calculate ESALs apply to a single axle setup (single, tandem, etc.), which is applied to each axle group of a truck and aggregated to arrive at the total ESAL factor. Table 13 provides an example of how ESAL factors are derived for each axle and aggregated for the entire vehicle. It also illustrates how different axle and weight configurations for the same total weight can result in different ESAL factors. Figure 11 shows the equation used to calculate ESAL factors for flexible (asphalt) surfaces.
Tagged Passions:streets, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, Utility, transportation, services, and water

Table 13. Example of Determining a Truck s ESAL Factor for a Flexible Surface

of Weight/Axle0 30,000 lbs. 80,000 lbs. 301 / 352 / 352 0.056 + 0.008 + 0.008 = 0.073 3.032 + 0.495 + 0.495 = 4.022
Tagged Passions:transportation

151 / 402 / 452 0.003 + 0.014 + 0.023 = 0.041 0.189 + 0.857 + 1.376 = 2.422

No additional detail provided

151 / 402 / 453 0.003 + 0.014 + 0.005 = 0.023 0.189 + 0.857 + 0.313 = 1.359

Scenarios are examples only, and assume a Serviceability Index of 2.5, Structural Number of 5, and Slab Depth of 12 inches. 1 = single axle, 2 = tandem axle, 3 = triple axle

Figure 11. Flexible Pavement ESAL Equation

No additional detail provided

18
W = axle applications inverse of equivalency factors (where W18 = number of 18,000 lb (80 kN) single axle loads) Lx = axle load being evaluated (kips) L18 = 18 (standard axle load in kips) L2 = code for axle configuration ( = of axles, x = axle load equivalency factor being evaluated, s = standard axle [single axle]) pt = terminal serviceability index (point at which the pavement is considered to be at the end of its useful life)

G = log 4.2 4.2 1.5 , a function of the ratio of loss in serviceability at time t to the potential loss taken at a point where pt = 1.5

SN = structural number

b = 0.4 + 0.081( + 2 )3.23( +1)5.19 2 3.23 , a function determining the relationship between serviceability and axle load applications Source: Pavement Interactive, 2009 DRAFT August 2019 Merging Trip Generation and Vehicle Classifications Some truck types are used in multiple stages and activities, while others are used only once. And for trucks used in more than one stage, their trip generation varies by activity. This variation requires each activity to have a vehicle classification profile where types, trip shares, and impacts are linked. Truck types and configurations were linked with their respective activity using available information from trip generation and type sources previously listed, along with additional input from a report produced by the Montana Department of Transportation (MDOT), a Texas A M Transportation Institute (TTI) study, EIS studies from La Plata County in Colorado and the United States Department of the Interior s Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in Utah, and data provided by COGA. Because descriptions were not always available as to exactly which trucks are used for each activity, the sources consulted were used to produce a best estimate as to how trucks are used. These resources were also referenced to estimate the average share of an activity s trips that each truck configuration would account for, and if the truck is loaded for inbound, outbound, or both trip directions. Table 14 summarizes the types of trucks used by development stage and phase. Not shown in the table are truck types for the production period, which is primarily made up of pickup or similar trucks for maintenance and 5-axle haul trucks to handle resources and produced water.
Tagged Passions:utility, development, Utility, transportation, water, and Development

Table 14. Typical Truck Classifications by Development Phase Stage Activity Typical Truck Types

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:development, transportation, and Development

Construction Pad and Road Construction Pickup, 5-axle haul Drilling Drilling Rig and Crew Pickup, Specialty (6+ axles) Drilling Fluid and Materials 3/5-axle haul Drilling Equipment (casing, drill pipe, etc) 3/5-axle haul Completion Completion Rig and Crew Pickup, Workover Rig Completion Equipment (pipe, wellhead, etc) 3/5-axle haul Fracturing Equipment (pump trucks, tanks, etc) 3/5-axle haul Fracture Water 3/5-axle haul Fracture Sand and Chemicals 5-axle haul Produced Water Disposal 5-axle haul

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:construction, equipment, streets, utility, Utility, fire departments and districts, transportation, materials, and water

Sources: RPI Consulting, LLC, 2008; New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, 2011; Bureau of Land Management, 2008; La Plata County, 2002; North Dakota Department of Transportation, 2006; Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute, 2012; Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute, 2013; Bureau of Land Management, 2006; Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute, 2010; Bureau of Land Management, 2011; STE, 2012; Colorado Oil and Gas Association, 2019

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, services, Conservation, and environment

Trip Distribution and Assignment With trips per pad and their vehicular makeup established, the development and production phases could be modeled. To model where trips would go and the impacts they would generate, trips and ESALs were loaded (separately) into the VISUM model. This process consists of two primary steps: distributing the trips and ESALs, and assigning them to the modeled road network.

Trip Distribution Once the trips and ESALs per pad were calculated, they were entered into the VISUM travel model at each pad, distributing trips and ESALs to origins and destinations based on activities as described in this chapter. Table 15 summarizes how trips were allocated to/from each pad site. DRAFT August 2019 Table 15. Trip Distribution Assumptions

Tagged Passions:streets, travel, development, and Development

Trip Profile Trip Origin/Destination by District West East-Central Far East Equipment 100 outside of County 100 outside of County 100 outside of County Materials 100 outside of County 100 outside of County 100 outside of County

Workers / Maintenance 100 outside of County 100 outside of County 100 outside of County Fresh Water 90 Rangeview, 5 Aurora, and 5 outside of County 50 Rangeview, 45 outside of County, and 5 to private landowner in Bennett

Tagged Passions:equipment, utility, Utility, materials, and water

90
outside of County, and 5 to private landowner in Bennett

No additional detail provided

Produced Water 100 outside of County 100 outside of County 100 outside of County Product 100 outside of County 100 outside of County 100 outside of County

Trips to/from outside the County were assumed to travel to/from the north/northwest to Weld County and Denver. These trips could use I-70, US 36, SH 71, or SH 79 to leave Arapahoe County. The decision as to which road to use was determined by the model during trip assignment, which is described below. No trips were assigned to E-470, as SH 30 could serve these trips and no clear and fair way was identified to determine which trips would be willing to use a tollway and at what regularity.
Tagged Passions:streets, travel, utility, Utility, and water

Trip Assignment With trips and ESALs distributed and linked, the VISUM travel model was used to assign the trips and ESALs to the model road network based on which path would provide the shortest travel time a function of route length and speed limit. As noted at the beginning of this chapter, the model network includes roads outside of the jurisdictional responsibility of Arapahoe County to account for real-world connectivity needed to facilitate the distribution of origins and destinations, some of which exist outside of Arapahoe County. As noted above, E-470 was excluded from the modeling process.

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:streets and travel

Because oil and gas trips take place at all hours of the day and every day of the week, background traffic and congestion were not factored into the modeling process to impact assignment. The assignment process was conducted for a combination of each phase (development and production), for both trips and ESALs.

Model Results Results from each model (trips and ESALs, development and production phases) were exported into a spreadsheet to be assessed for impacts, namely overlay and reconstruction needs. Daily trips were recorded for unpaved roads, which were paired with existing counts to fully assess their unique needs. This process was also conducted when comparing the impacts of having no pipelines (the base modeling scenario) versus using pipelines for all fresh water, produced water, and product transport. Chapter 5 describes how mitigation needs and associated costs were calculated from the impacts exported from the travel model. DRAFT August 2019 4. STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT The County provided opportunities for the oil and gas industry to hear about the transportation impact study process, ask questions, and comment on the proposed methodology and assumptions. An Industry Stakeholder meeting was held on December 12, 2018. Representatives of the Colorado Oil Gas Association (COGA), Colorado Petroleum Council (CPC) and eight individual operators and consultants attended the meeting and provided comments on the study. Meeting attendees and other invitees were asked to provide the County with additional comments in the next month. Comment letters were received in January from COGA and CPC. COGA representatives asked for a follow-up meeting to discuss study methodology further and that meeting was conducted on February 26. A total of 21 key questions and comments were compiled from the two meetings and two letters listed above. Appendix D provides a summary of each of those comments, the source of the comment, notes, and the County s response. Following is a summary of the changes to study assumptions and methodology that were incorporated as a result of industry comments and subsequent analysis: Pad Density: Density of oil and gas pads in the western zone of the County was reduced from one per square mile to one per two square miles, and the report clearly explains that the number of pads is not a prediction but is used for analytical purposes to calculate the average impact of pads and wells in the study area. Trip Generation: Local trip generation data was provided by COGA from a County operator, which was added as another data point for trip generation data used for the study. Shoulder Improvements and Paving of Gravel Roads: Rather than the originally planned

Tagged Passions:council, streets, travel, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, transportation, services, water, Development, and traffic

methods of assessing shoulder widening and gravel road paving costs, the existing Eastern Plains Transportation Impact Fee cost per vehicle miles of travel was applied to oil and gas pads and wells to account for these trip-based (not load-based) improvements. Independent Study Guidelines: The fee implementing language will include the option and

guidelines for applicants to submit an independent fee calculation. Very Poor Condition Roads: The County s initial methodology for treating roads with pavement in Very Poor condition was that these roads would be reconstructed if oil and gas trucks used them. That assumption was based on the idea that reconstruction is often more economical than trying to apply overlays to a road that is already in poor condition. It was determined that in most cases reconstruction is a more economical course of action, while in some cases overlays are more economical. Based on this finding, the County has opted to calculate costs with each method and choose the lowest cost method calculated for different zones and pipeline scenarios. Rural Collectors: Many of the continuous section line roads in the eastern part of the County that are anticipated to be used for oil and gas traffic are currently classified as Rural Collectors. It was found that the standard pavement variables assigned to Rural Collectors were underestimating the service life of many of these roads and thus resulting in higher than expected overlay costs. It was determined that treating these roads as Rural Arterials rather than Rural Collectors would reduce overlay costs and represent a more reasonable approach, so these roads were treated as Rural Arterials for the fee calculation. DRAFT August 2019
Tagged Passions:rural, streets, travel, Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, poverty, and traffic

5.
OIL GAS IMPACT MITIGATION NEEDS The mitigation measures and associated costs presented herein represent the additional costs or funding needs attributable to oil and gas traffic based on the assumptions and calculations described in the previous chapters. They do not include baseline maintenance or improvement costs that would be incurred by the County without the addition of oil and gas traffic. It should further be noted that the mitigation measures and costs represent typical treatments used by the County for cost estimation purposes; this is not meant to prescribe exact treatments that would be applied to each road segment since each road is unique. These mitigation methods and associated costs are described below.

Paved Road Analysis Two factors are critical in analyzing the capabilities of paved roads to accommodate additional truck traffic: the current pavement condition (PCI) and structural rating expressed as the structural number (SN). The SN is a function of the thickness of the surface and base layers, and the layer materials. The County provided the pavement rating (PCI) for all paved County-responsible roads within the study area. Surface treatments (such as crack sealing, fog coats, cold mix pot hole fixes, etc.) were not included as a cost because these treatments do not impact the structural ability of pavement and a cost proportioning method of these activities to the industry was not identifiable. However, it is noted that surface treatments aid in the prevention of oxidation of the pavement, which in turn, prolongs the life of the pavement. The following sections describe the methodology utilized to quantify the rehabilitation needs attributable to the oil and gas industry for hot mix asphalt (HMA). Since there are no concrete County-responsible roads in the study area, a concrete pavement methodology is not addressed.

Tagged Passions:drugs, funding, streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, materials, and traffic

Hot Mix Asphalt Pavement Methodology The approach to determine the rehabilitation needs to offset the impacts of oil and gas traffic on asphalt pavement roads requires the determination of the pavement structural number (SN) for existing traffic as well as existing traffic plus oil and gas traffic.

The existing serviceability, initial serviceability, terminal serviceability, background ESALs (non-oil and gas portion of the design ESALs), reliability level, and standard deviation must be defined in order to determine the existing SN. The existing serviceability is based on the PCI, as provided by the County, for each study area asphalt roadway. The existing serviceability is interpolated based on the PCI and values shown on Figure 12. The values shown in Table 16 are based on industry standards and input from the County for the different roadway classifications. These values are then used to solve for SN within the 1993 AASHTO Guide equation for flexible pavement, which is provided on Figure 13. After the SN is calculated for the existing conditions (SNEXISTING), the SN is calculated for the existing conditions plus the oil and gas traffic (SNCOMBINED). The SN Deficiency is then calculated (SNCOMBINED - SNEXISTING). The required pavement overlay for the oil and gas traffic is then calculated by dividing the SN Deficiency by the Standard Deviation. The cost for the required overlay was then calculated for each respective section of asphalt road using a price of 85/ton. Appendix C includes a summary of mitigation unit costs used in this study. DRAFT August 2019 Figure 12. Pavement Condition Assumptions Pavement Condition PCI Existing Serviceability arterials, major/minor
Tagged Passions:streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, and traffic

collector rural collectors,

locals, RotoPaved EXCELLENT 100 4.5 4.5 GOOD 85 4.0 4.0 FAIR 70 3.5 3.3 POOR 55 3.0 2.6 VERY POOR 40 2.5 2.0 0.0 Terminal Serviceability

Tagged Passions:rural and poverty

Source: Arapahoe County, 2019

Table 16. Assumptions for Existing Pavement Sections Classification Design ESAL Reliability ( ) Standard Normal Deviate (ZR) Resilient Modulus (MR) Initial Serviceability Terminal Serviceability Standard Deviation

Asphalt Major Arterial 1,825,000 95 -1.645 3,500 psi 4.5 2.5 0.44 Rural Arterial 1,825,000 95 -1.645 3,500 psi 4.5 2.5 0.44 Minor Arterial 1,825,000 95 -1.645 3,500 psi 4.5 2.5 0.44 Major Collector 1,460,000 95 -1.645 3,500 psi 4.5 2.5 0.44 Minor Collector 1,460,000 95 -1.645 3,500 psi 4.5 2.5 0.44 Rural Collector 730,000 90 -1.282 3,500 psi 4.5 2.0 0.44 Local 73,000 80 -0.841 3,500 psi 4.5 2.0 0.44 Rural Local 73,000 80 -0.841 3,500 psi 4.5 2.0 0.44 RotoPaved 73,000 80 -0.841 3,500 psi 4.5 2.0 0.30

Tagged Passions:rural

Source: Arapahoe County, 2019

No additional detail provided

Figure 13. AASHTO Equation for Flexible Pavements

Failing Asphalt Methodology When heavy truck traffic (like that associated with oil and gas activity) uses an asphalt road with a PCI rating below 40 ( Very Poor ), it can expedite or even immediately warrant the need to reconstruct it. To capture this potentially immediate high cost, the study analyzed any Very Poor condition asphalt road used by oil and gas traffic in the model to determine if reconstruction was more cost effective than overlay when looking at the cumulative costs of the development phase and 10 years of production.

DRAFT August 2019 If reconstruction was determined to be more cost effective, the full cost of reconstruction was attributed to the oil and gas activity using a price of 30,000/mile per foot of roadway width, which includes the cost of removing the existing pavement. Appendix C includes a summary of mitigation unit costs used in this study. This special analysis of Very Poor condition roads only occurred in the development phase model, after which any reconstructed road was analyzed as an Excellent pavement condition (PCI = 95) in the production phase model since any road used in the production phase would have been triggered for reconstruction in the development phase. In many cases, reconstruction is less expensive than additional overlays that would be needed for the oil and gas industry use of roads in Very Poor condition. However, there were scenarios where added overlay remained more cost effective. This is a departure from past oil and gas transportation impact studies where reconstruction was nearly always more cost effective. Several local conditions contributed to this new blended approach:
Tagged Passions:streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, public safety, transportation, Development, poverty, and traffic

RotoPaved Roads: The RotoPaved surface essentially a surface made of recycled asphalt, serves passenger vehicle traffic in a very cost-effective manner. However, the surface is not designed to handle heavy trucks. This resulted in a greater number of roads being reconstructed for long distances, adding up to a very high fixed cost that could not be recuperated over the 10- year production phase in some scenarios. Thus, in these instances, overlay was more affordable. More Very Poor Roads: Overall, the roads used in Arapahoe County were of poorer condition,

Tagged Passions:streets, transportation, poverty, and traffic

requiring more reconstruction than might otherwise be expected. Less Well Density: Reconstructing roads is a fixed cost and is not tied directly to the scaling of

trips when scaling the number of wells. Because this study assumes less wells per pad in eastern districts, and these districts have more Very Poor roads (see Figure 6), there are less wells to share the burden of the fixed cost of reconstruction. Thus, for some scenarios it is more costly to reconstruct versus adding overlay. County staff noted that this blended approach to recovering costs associated with potential use of Very Poor roads is also more representative of real-world considerations for maintaining these kinds of roads in the County. Roads with Very Poor conditions in the eastern portions of the County see lower overall traffic volumes, which would likely receive some sort of short-term overlay mitigation rather than reconstruction due to cost-benefit analysis, which might be the opposite of similar roads further west. In comparison, Adams County has more gravel roads in the eastern portions of that county, with only select roadways having pavement and that pavement having higher design characteristics that would better accommodate heavier loads. The blended Very Poor road mitigation approach is noted in subsequent cost and fee tables to highlight which scenarios used reconstruction of Very Poor roads versus calculating the offsetting overlay when developing the associated fee.

Tagged Passions:streets, poverty, and traffic

Unpaved Road Analysis The increase in maintenance and rehabilitation costs are a key element in determining the improvement cost for unpaved roads. Unlike paved roads, impacts for unpaved roads are realized as daily traffic volumes increase rather than the number of ESALs experienced. As the number of vehicles per day increases, activities such as grading and gravel applications must be implemented to preserve the surface quality, while dust suppression must also be implemented to address environmental concerns.

DRAFT August 2019 Existing daily traffic volumes were collected/estimated for each unpaved road that experienced oil and gas traffic in the model to establish an existing baseline of maintenance occurring. Oil and gas daily traffic was then applied to determine if any additional maintenance was necessary. Costs were only calculated for the additional maintenance or paving required due to oil and gas traffic. The following sections describe how daily oil and gas traffic was estimated and the parameters for increased maintenance or paving. Estimating Daily Oil Gas Traffic Volumes For modeling purposes, oil and gas trips for the development phase are expressed as the total number of trips for the entirety of the development phase. Furthermore, the model assigns trips for all pads and wells in one model run since paved maintenance is reliant on loads, not time-based traffic volumes, allowing for an average impact of a pad and well developed anywhere at any time. Conversely, increased maintenance or paving of unpaved roads is based on daily traffic volume thresholds, so estimates were needed about the distribution of oil and gas traffic over time. Making this estimate using trips generated by all 128 pads and their wells being developed at one time would overestimate daily traffic attributed to oil and gas, triggering maintenance or paving that realistically would not be necessary. Alternatively, spacing development of the 128 pads and their wells evenly over the 10-year study period (about 13 pads per year) would not account for annual fluctuations that could result in substantially more pads being developed, subsequently underestimating needs that could occur during peaks in development. Furthermore, development is unlikely to occur evenly throughout the study area, and instead be focused in clusters, further bolstering the fact that an average pace would not account for peak demands on unpaved roads.

Tagged Passions:streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, environment, Development, grading, and traffic

To devise an estimate in between the two extremes described above, modeled oil and gas volumes were divided by a factor consisting of the average number of days in development multiplied by the number of estimated development periods it would take to develop all 128 pad sites and their wells at a pace greater than an evenly spaced average but lower than all at once. A pace equivalent to developing all 128 pads and their wells in any given area over a 4-year period was selected, as this pace represents a peak condition observed for areas in Weld County in the past five years. This selected pace represents a data-driven estimate that attempts to neither over nor under-estimate needs as described above, yet account for spikes in development that could trigger increased maintenance or paving need.

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:sites, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, and Development

Modeling for the production phase also assigned all trips in one model run, but post-processing of the results for daily traffic-based thresholds recognized that pads would incrementally come online over the ten years, resulting in the full modeled volume at Year 10. For example, if an unpaved road is estimated to have 100 vpd at full buildout of all pads, Year 1 was estimated to have 10 vpd, Year 2 to have 20 vpd, and so on. The maintenance or paving needs and costs were assessed for each year, the total 10- year costs aggregated, and the aggregated costs divided by ten to establish an average annual cost. Although it is unlikely pads would be developed at a steady pace over the 10-year horizon, this method accounts for incrementally increased maintenance needs as more pads are developed and begin to produce over time, while recognizing the uncertainty of development timing and intensity.

DRAFT August 2019 Maintenance and Rehabilitation Schedule and Costs Table 17 outlines the maintenance thresholds for unpaved roads and the County s average costs associated with each maintenance activity. Appendix C includes a summary of mitigation unit costs used in this study. These mitigation activities are only for added traffic from oil and gas and involve additional instances of each activity as oil and gas vpd increase. Thus, as stated earlier, only additional maintenance or paving as a result of adding oil and gas traffic was attributed to the industry.
Tagged Passions:recognition, streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Development, and traffic

Table 17. Unpaved Road Maintenance Schedule and Costs

Activity Cost per Application Baseline (without oil gas) Low (<= 50 vpd*) Elevated (51-100 vpd*) Moderate (101-200 vpd*) High (> 300 vpd**) Grading 350/mile 1 every 2 months 1/month 2/month 3/month Pave

Tagged Passions:streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, and grading

(no more gravel maintenance)

Dust Suppressant 9,000/mile 1/year 1/year 2/year 3/year Graveling 45,000/mile 1 every 7 years 1 every 7 years 1 every 6 years 1 every 4 years

Paving of Unpaved Roads Like widening to add shoulders, paving gravel roads was included in the Eastern Plains Transportation Impact Fee. Thus, this improvement type is part of the trip-based fee element that is being added as part of this study and was not included as part of the modeling and cost calculation process described earlier. However, a paving threshold of 300 vpd that is generally used by the County was used to determine when to cut-off gravel maintenance when calculating mitigation costs.

DRAFT August 2019
Tagged Passions:streets and transportation

6.
OIL GAS ROADWAY IMPACT FEES The purpose of designing oil and gas roadway impact fees is to recover the incremental costs associated with the industry s impact on Arapahoe County s roads. Because of the nature of oil and gas development, the most intense impact occurs during development, prior to when wells generate tax revenue that could be used to offset impacts upfront. After the development phase, the well enters the less traffic-intensive production phase, but this activity continues over the life of the well. The capital required to recover costs of both phases is ideally recovered during the permitting process so the County can be as proactive as possible in offsetting impacts. This is accomplished through oil and gas roadway impact fees.

In designing oil and gas roadway impact fees, it is critical to isolate the oil and gas damage on the County s roads. Because the County already has an impact fee for the study area to address adding/improving shoulders and pave gravel roads known as the Eastern Plains Transportation Impact Fee (EPTIF) two fee methodologies were used in this study. Road deterioration related fees are designed to recoup the cost to the County associated with ESAL-based and gravel maintenance related impacts as estimated in this study, and are expressed as per pad and per well fees. Other trip-based related fees covered by the EPTIF are designed using the process defined in the EPTIF study, and are expressed as vehicle-miles-traveled fees. Table 18 outlines which mitigation activities are covered by each fee methodology.

Tagged Passions:streets, travel, taxes, Taxes, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, Development, and traffic

Table 18. Oil Gas Impact Fee Methods by Mitigation Activity Mitigation Activity Fee Calculation Method

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil

Asphalt Overlay ESAL-Based Average Cost per Pad per Well (Figure 14 illustrates this calculation) Gravel Maintenance Trip-Based Average Cost per Pad Well Paving Gravel Roads and Shoulder Improvements

Add Oil Gas to Eastern Plains Transportation Impact Fee Schedule; VMT-Based using passenger car equivalent Both fees are combined to form one fee schedule, which is explained later in this chapter. The following subsections further describe the two methodologies and the calculations conducted for each. Road Deterioration Based Fee Road Deterioration Component Costs The roadway deterioration impact costs were calculated by applying the cost assumptions described in Chapter 5 with the modeling of impacts for the development of 1,032 wells on 128 pads and aggregated for the whole study area and individually for the three districts, as explained in Chapters 2 and 3. The average per-pad and per-well costs were calculated by dividing these roadway costs by the number of pads (128) and number of wells (1,032) modeled. Two separate scenarios were modeled and analyzed: one assuming that all wells utilize trucks for all water (fresh and produced) and product transport, and another assuming that all wells utilize pipelines for all transport of these materials. This approach allowed for the capture of the overall effect of pipelines on total impact costs and for the calculation of fees based on whether pad sites will have access to any combination of fresh water, produced water, and product pipelines. DRAFT August 2019 Table 19 provides the total roadway deterioration impact costs associated with development of the 128 pads, as well as the impact costs associated with the production trips of those same pads over a 10-year period, using the process and unit costs outlined in Chapter 5. Costs are shown for each of the mitigation cost categories, and documents the analysis using both the reconstruction of Very Poor condition roads method versus the overlay method for these roads.
Tagged Passions:sites, streets, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, transportation, materials, water, Development, and poverty

Table 19. Impact Costs for Oil and Gas Development and Production without Pipelines (2019 )

Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, and Development

Full Study Area West District East-Central District Far East District Total Pads 128 75 44 9 Wells per Pad 8 10 6 2

Reconstruction Method for Very Poor Condition Roads Development Phase Asphalt Overlay 9,883,400 5,252,500 4,568,900 62,200 Gravel Maintenance 169,600 6,800 133,100 29,700 Very Poor Road Reconstruction 10,990,200 1,013,000 9,862,000 115,300 Production Phase (10-years) Asphalt Overlay 68,335,000 37,755,000 30,328,000 254,000 Gravel Maintenance 1,446,000 61,000 948,000 438,000 Very Poor Road Reconstruction 0 0 0 0 Total Costs 90,824,200 44,088,300 45,840,000 899,200 Cost per Modeled Pad 709,564 587,844 1,041,818 99,911 Overlay Method for Very Poor Condition Roads Development Phase Asphalt Overlay 15,036,100 5,674,800 9,288,100 73,200 Gravel Maintenance 169,600 6,800 133,100 29,700 Very Poor Road Reconstruction 0 0 0 0 Production Phase (10-years) Asphalt Overlay 109,129,000 40,799,000 68,049,000 283,000 Gravel Maintenance 1,446,000 61,000 948,000 438,000 Very Poor Road Reconstruction 0 0 0 0 Total Costs 125,780,700 46,541,600 78,418,200 823,900 Cost per Modeled Pad 982,662 620,555 1,782,232 91,544 When looking at the development and production phases combined, the breakdown shows that Asphalt Overlay represents the largest cost component. However, when using the reconstruction method to treat Very Poor roads in the development phase, this mitigation activity is the largest development phase cost for the East-Central and Far East districts. In most cases this higher up-front cost reduces long-term costs in the production phase, as noted in Chapter 5, but that is not always the case. Subsequent fee calculation tables note where the reconstruction method or overlay method was used to be as cost-effective as possible. This set of results is shown for the study area as a whole, as well as individually for the three districts. It includes all truck trips for the transportation of fresh and produced water, as well as product produced, and is considered the base scenario. The same costs associated with implementing pipelines for all fresh and produced water, as well as product, are similarly displayed in Table 20. Both tables also show the average cost to offset the roadway impacts of a single pad (total costs divided over total pads), accounting for ten years of production. DRAFT August 2019

Tagged Passions:911, streets, utility, development, Utility, transportation, water, Development, and poverty

Table 20. Impact Costs for Oil and Gas Development and Production with Fresh Water, Produced Water, and Product Pipelines (2019 )

Tagged Passions:utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, water, and Development

Full Study Area West District East-Central District Far East District Total Pads 128 75 44 9 Wells per Pad 8 10 6 2

Reconstruction Method for Very Poor Condition Roads Development Phase Asphalt Overlay 5,572,400 2,761,800 2,782,000 28,700 Gravel Maintenance 30,000 700 24,500 4,900 Very Poor Road Reconstruction 10,990,200 1,013,000 9,840,300 137,000 Production Phase (10-years) Asphalt Overlay 169,000 96,000 73,000 1,000 Gravel Maintenance 1,400,000 26,000 1,073,000 301,000 Very Poor Road Reconstruction 0 0 0 0 Total Costs 18,161,600 3,897,500 13,792,800 472,600 Cost per Modeled Pad 141,888 51,967 313,473 52,511 Overlay Method for Very Poor Condition Roads Development Phase Asphalt Overlay 8,220,200 2,982,900 5,203,500 33,900 Gravel Maintenance 30,000 700 24,500 4,900 Very Poor Road Reconstruction 0 0 0 0 Production Phase (10-years) Asphalt Overlay 241,000 100,000 141,000 1,000 Gravel Maintenance 1,400,000 26,000 1,073,000 301,000 Very Poor Road Reconstruction 0 0 0 0 Total Costs 9,891,200 3,109,600 6,442,000 340,800 Cost per Modeled Pad 77,275 41,461 146,409 37,867 Calculating the Road Deterioration Fee Component To allow for variations in the number of wells per pad, the fee calculation is based on two components: a pad construction fee and a well development and production fee. One percent of all costs associated with developing a pad is attributable to pad construction based on that activity s ESAL generation, and the remaining costs are attributed to the well development. All production costs are associated with the well fee. Figure 14 illustrates this process.

Tagged Passions:construction, streets, development, Development, and poverty

Figure 14. Road Deterioration Based Fee Calculation Methodology

DRAFT August 2019 Table 21 presents the calculated impact fees, which are the average impact costs associated with pad construction and well development, and the 10-year cumulative impact costs of well production. The table splits the impact fees between phases (development versus ten years of production), boundary (full study area versus the three districts), pipeline scenario, and per-pad versus per-well fee. Fees in red use the overlay method rather than the reconstruction method for impacts to Very Poor roads. Table 21. Full Oil and Gas Road Deterioration Impact Fee Schedule Options (2019 ) Pipeline Scenario Fee Type

Tagged Passions:construction, streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Development, and poverty

Study Area West District East-Central District Far East District Fresh Water

Pipeline Produced Water Pipeline Product Pipeline Roadway Deterioration Impact Fees Roadway Deterioration Impact Fees Roadway Deterioration Impact Fees Roadway Deterioration Impact Fees Per Pad Fees n/a n/a n/a Pad Fee (D) 1,188 758 2,141 114 Per Well Fees - - - Well Fee (D) 20,187 8,279 54,615 5,660 Well Fee (P) 67,617 50,421 118,470 40,056 Total Well Fee 87,804 58,700 173,085 45,716 - - Well Fee (D) 18,031 6,615 50,984 3,880 Well Fee (P) 67,617 50,421 118,470 40,056 Total Well Fee 85,648 57,036 169,454 43,935 - - Well Fee (D) 20,187 8,279 54,615 5,660 Well Fee (P) 33,908 24,789 60,264 28,184 Total Well Fee 54,095 33,068 114,879 33,844 - - Well Fee (D) 18,031 6,615 50,984 3,880 Well Fee (P) 35,230 25,795 62,547 28,649 Total Well Fee 53,260 32,409 113,531 32,529

Tagged Passions:utility, Utility, and water

- Well Fee (D) 18,031 6,615 50,984 3,880 Well Fee (P) 33,908 24,789 60,264 28,184 Total Well Fee 51,938 31,404 111,248 32,063

No additional detail provided

- Well Fee (D) 15,874 4,950 47,353 2,099 Well Fee (P) 35,230 25,795 62,547 28,649 Total Well Fee 51,104 30,745 109,900 30,748

No additional detail provided

- Well Fee (D) 11,217 5,701 27,388 3,880 Well Fee (P) 1,590 168 4,598 16,778 Total Well Fee 12,807 5,869 31,986 20,657

Well Fee (D) 7,847 3,902 19,446 2,099 Well Fee (P) 1,590 168 4,598 16,778 Total Well Fee 9,437 4,070 24,044 18,877

(D) = Development Phase (P) = Production Phase xx,xxx = Uses overlay method rather than reconstruction method for Very Poor condition roads because it is more cost effective

Page 40 DRAFT August 2019 Table 22 summarizes the resulting maximum defensible road deterioration fee structure total fees by pipeline scenario. Fees are only shown for the three districts, as the methodology of using different well densities per district does not lend itself to producing a fee for the overall study area. Table 22. Maximum Oil and Gas Road Deterioration Impact Fee Schedule (2019 ) Pipeline Scenario West East-Central Far East Fresh Water Pipeline Produced Water Pipeline Product Pipeline Per Pad Fees n/a n/a n/a 758 2,141 114
Tagged Passions:streets, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, water, Development, and poverty

Per Well Fees - - - 58,700 173,085 45,716 - - 57,036 169,454 43,935 - - 33,068 114,879 33,844 - - 32,409 113,531 32,529 - 31,404 111,248 32,063 - 30,745 109,900 30,748 - 5,869 31,986 20,657 4,070 24,044 18,877

Vehicle-Mile-Based Fee Adding shoulders to paved roads with no or substandard shoulders and paving gravel roads are two impact mitigation types that have been included in development of oil and gas impact fees for some Colorado jurisdictions. These improvement components have been calculated using estimates of the total needs for these improvements based on modeled oil and gas traffic and calculating the average per pad and per well cost for these improvements. Shoulder Widening: Shoulder widening on paved roads with no or substandard shoulders is a safety mitigation measure to maintain safe multimodal roads with the increased truck traffic associated with the oil and gas development. Wider shoulders provide safety benefits for all roadway users, including a space for bicyclists separate from the travel lanes, a countermeasure to run-off-road crashes, and a stopping area for breakdowns or other emergencies. Paving of Gravel Roads: As traffic volumes increase on gravel roads, air quality concerns arise and the frequency and resulting cost of maintenance and dust abatement increases, making the paving of the roads more cost effective and environmentally conscious than continued gravel road maintenance. The Arapahoe County 2035 Transportation Plan lists a 700 vpd threshold; however, in practice the County has often invested in road paving projects on roads with lower volumes, such as 300 vpd, which was used as the threshold in this study to stop a gravel road s maintenance costs and instead have this fee component cover paving. Page 41 DRAFT August 2019

Tagged Passions:streets, travel, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, Development, abatement, and traffic

The shoulder and paving improvements share four characteristics that led to further discussion about the method of incorporating them in the oil and gas impact fee:

Their needs are not load/ESAL-based but more VMT-based. They are improvement types that are included in the 2016 Eastern Plains Transportation Impact Fee Study (EPTIF) transportation improvements. Stakeholders have raised a concern about the oil and gas impact fee assessing the full cost of these improvements on the industry, as other users will benefit from the improvements. Arapahoe County does not have established traffic volume thresholds to require paving of gravel roads or adding shoulders to paved roads.

Tagged Passions:streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, and traffic

Based on these characteristics, an alternative method is being used to account for these improvements in the oil and gas impact fees. This method uses VMT for oil and gas wells and the EPTIF cost per VMT to calculate the oil and gas fee component to address paving gravel roads and shoulder improvements.

Calculating the Vehicle-Mile-Based Fee Component This section documents calculations to use the Eastern Plains Transportation Impact Fee (EPTIF) methodology for developing the VMT-based fee component for shoulder improvements and paving of gravel roads.

Tagged Passions:streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, and transportation

Daily Trips The first step is to calculate the average daily trips generated per pad and per well. Table 23 shows these calculations based on trip generation rates provided in Chapter 3. Trips that occur during the early development phase for a well or pad are spread over a 10-year period to derive average daily trips.

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:development, Development, and rates

Table 23. Average Daily Trips Per Well and Per Pad

Total Trips Days in 10-Year Time Frame Average Daily Trips Per Pad Development Phase 1,008 3,650 0.28 Production Phase n/a n/a 0 Total 0.28

Tagged Passions:development and Development

Per Well Development Phase 2,130 3,650 0.58 Production Phase n/a n/a 2.0 Total 2.58

Passenger Car Equivalents Due to their size, each heavy truck has an elevated impact on the need for shoulder improvements or paving of gravel roads. The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM), published by the Transportation Research Board, provides a national standard for the analysis of operations on roadway. The HCM defines a concept of Passenger Car Equivalents (PCE) and trucks are assigned a 1.9 PCE on level terrain for two- lane roads. Oil and gas trip generation analysis shows that approximately 57 percent of trips generated are trucks. With 57 percent of vehicles at a PCE of 1.9 the average PCE for all oil and gas trips is approximately 1.5. Page 42 DRAFT August 2019
Tagged Passions:streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, and Development

Trip Lengths and Primary Trips The average trip length on County roads for all oil and gas trips modeled for this study has been calculated to be 5.5 miles.

The EPTIF uses a concept of primary trips in impact fee calculations. Trips generated by some land uses start or end at another Arapahoe County fee-generating use, so the trip generation by those uses is reduced to avoid double charging for the same trip at both ends. For a large majority of trips generated by oil and gas wells, the other end of the trip is not at a fee-generating Arapahoe County land use, so 100 percent of oil and gas trips are considered as primary trips.

Tagged Passions:streets and Fossil Fuels - Oil

Fee Calculation The EPTIF study calculated a growth cost per VMT of 153.10. Using this cost/VMT and the values noted in Table 23, Table 24 provides the calculated fees per pad and per well for this fee component.

Tagged Passions:growth

Table 24. Vehicle Mile-Based Fee Component Calculation Factor Value

Per Pad Daily Trips 0.28 trips Vehicle Miles 5.5 Average 1.54 miles Vehicle Miles Passenger Car Equivalent 1.5 PCE 2.31 miles Fee 153.10 / VMT 354 fee Per Well Daily Trips 2.58 trips Vehicle Miles 5.5 Average 14.19 miles Vehicle Miles Passenger Car Equivalent 1.5 PCE 21.29 miles Fee 153.10 / VMT 3,260 fee The VMT-based fees shown in Table 24 apply to a scenario with no pipelines. These fee amounts are reduced proportionally to the PCE associated with the trips that would be eliminated with pipelines as shown in Table 25.

Table 25. Vehicle Mile-Based Fee by Pipeline Scenario Pipeline Scenario

West East-Central Far East Fresh Water Pipeline Produced Water Pipeline Product Pipeline Per Pad Fees n/a n/a n/a 354 354 354

Tagged Passions:utility, Utility, and water

Per Well Fees - - - 3,260 3,260 3,260 - - 2,804 2,804 2,804 - - 2,380 2,380 2,380 - - 2,380 2,380 2,380 - 1,923 1,923 1,923 - 1.923 1,923 1,923 - 1,500 1,500 1,500 1,043 1,043 1,043

Page 43 DRAFT August 2019 Combined Fee To make applying the two fees simpler, they have been combined in Table 26 by adding the VMT-based fee per pad and per well from Table 25 with the fee schedule laid out in Table 22.

Table 26. Combined Maximum Oil and Gas Roadway Impact Fee Schedule (2019 ) Pipeline Scenario

West East-Central Far East Fresh Water Pipeline Produced Water Pipeline Product Pipeline Per Pad Fees n/a n/a n/a 1,112 2,495 468

Tagged Passions:utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, Utility, and water

Per Well Fees - - - 61,960 176,345 48,976 - - 59,840 172,258 46,739 - - 35,448 117,259 36,224 - - 34,789 115,911 34,909 - 33,327 113,171 33,986 - 32,668 111,823 32,671 - 7,369 33,486 22,157 5,113 25,087 19,920

Page 44 DRAFT August 2019 Fee Schedules for Other Oil and Gas Scenarios Per-ESAL Fee for Independent Fee Studies It is anticipated that the enabling ordinance for the oil and gas impact fee will allow development applicants to conduct an independent fee study if they meet specific criteria. In doing so, they may be required to use an average per-ESAL fee derived from this study s methodology. To establish this per- ESAL fee displayed in Table 26, the road deterioration fees shown in Table 22 were divided by the ESALs generated by a pad and well. The VMT-based fees in Table 24 are to be applied separately.

Tagged Passions:ordinance, 911, streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, and Development

Table 27. Average Per-ESAL Road Deterioration Fees (2019 ) West

District East-Central

Tagged Passions:streets

District Far East District

7.63 22.48 5.88 These fees may also be used for other energy developments other than oil and gas, as independent fee studies are recommended for these land uses given the lack of data to conduct a similar study for each of these kinds of developments. Vertical Well Fees Unlike many other Front Range counties that have oil and gas development activity, Arapahoe County still occasionally sees the development of vertical wells rather than horizontal wells, which are the basis for this study and fees presented up to this point. To establish a fee schedule for vertical development, ESALs associated with this kind of development were isolated and compared as a percentage of horizontal well ESALs. This results in fees 98 percent of the per-pad fees for horizontal wells and 81 percent of the per-well fees in Table 25, as shown in Table 27. The per-ESAL road deterioration fees for vertical wells are 82 percent of those calculated for horizontal wells in Table 26, as shown in Table 28.

Tagged Passions:streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Development, and energy

Table 28. Combined Maximum Oil and Gas Roadway Impact Fee Schedule for Vertical Wells (2019 )

Pipeline Scenario West East-Central Far East Fresh Water Pipeline Produced Water Pipeline Product Pipeline Per Pad Fees n/a n/a n/a 1,085 2,434 457

Tagged Passions:utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, Utility, and water

Per Well Fees - - - 50,235 142,974 39,708 - - 48,516 139,660 37,894 - - 28,740 95,069 29,369 - - 28,206 93,976 28,303 - 27,020 91,755 27,555 - 26,486 90,662 26,489 - 5,975 27,150 17,964 4,145 20,340 16,150

Page 45 DRAFT August 2019

Table 29. Per-ESAL Road Deterioration Fees for Vertical Wells (2019 ) West

District East-Central

Tagged Passions:streets

District Far East District

6.29 18.54 4.85

Re-Fracking Well Fees Occasionally the fracking process is repeated to re-stimulate a well after its production has fallen off. Fees for this activity have been calculated using the same methodology described for vertical wells above, but using the ESALs generated only for fracking activities. Table 29 displays the per-pad and per- well fees, using 19 percent of the full per-pad fees and 79 percent of the full per-well fees from Table 25. The per-ESAL road deterioration fees for re-fracking wells are 74 percent of those calculated for horizontal wells in Table 26, as shown in Table 30.

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:streets, fracking, and FRACKING

Table 30. Combined Maximum Oil and Gas Roadway Impact Fee Schedule for Re-Fracking a Well (2019 )

Pipeline Scenario West East-Central Far East Fresh Water Pipeline Produced Water Pipeline Product Pipeline Per Pad Fees n/a n/a n/a 210 472 89

Tagged Passions:utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, Utility, water, fracking, and FRACKING

Per Well Fees - - - 48,803 138,897 38,575 - - 47,132 135,678 36,814 - - 27,921 92,358 28,531 - - 27,401 91,296 27,496 - 26,250 89,138 26,769 - 25,730 88,076 25,733 - 5,804 26,375 17,452 4,027 19,760 15,690

No additional detail provided

Table 31. Per-ESAL Road Deterioration Fees for Re-Fracking a Well (2019 )

West District East-Central District Far East District 5.62 16.56 4.33 Appendix A DRAFT August 2019 APPENDIX A. REFERENCES American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (1993). AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures. Anadarko Petroleum Corporation. (2014). Colorado Public Radio. Retrieved from

Tagged Passions:radio, streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, fracking, and FRACKING

http://www.cpr.org/news/story/ripple-effect-what-happens-when-fracking-and-water-intersect-colorado Arapahoe County Public Works and Development. (2019). GIS Data. Arapahoe County Public Works and Development. (2019). Pavement and Gravel Data. BBC News. (2015). Shale gas extraction. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-14432401 Bureau of Land Management. (2006). Final Environmental Impact Statement Jonah Infill Drilling Project. Bureau of

Land Management Pinedale and Rock Springs Field Offices. Retrieved from http://www.blm.gov/wy/st/en/info/NEPA/documents/pfo/jonah.html

Tagged Passions:GIS, utility, development, Utility, water, environment, natural gas, Development, Public Works, public works, fracking, and FRACKING

Bureau of Land Management. (2008). Chapita Wells/Stagecoach Area Final Environmental Impact Statement and Biological Assessment. Bureau of Land Management Vernal Field Office. Retrieved from http://www.blm.gov/ut/st/en/fo/vernal/planning/nepa_/Chapita_Wells.html

Tagged Passions:planning and environment

Bureau of Land Management. (2011). November 2011 Lease Sale, Parcel 6052 Environmental Assessment. Bureau of Land Management Colorado State Office. Retrieved from http://www.blm.gov/style/medialib/blm/co/information/nepa/glenwood_springs_field/2011_documents .Par.78627.File.dat/DOI-BLM-CO-N040-2011-0075-EA.pdf

Tagged Passions:leasing, sale, environment, and property

Bureau of Land Management. (2017, January 23). BLM Colorado PLSS First Division. Retrieved from Navigator: https://navigator.blm.gov/data?keyword=PLSS fs_publicRegion=Colorado pageNum=2

Carrizo Oil and Gas Inc. (n.d.). Niobrara Pad. Retrieved from http://www.carrizo.com/getattachment/9490793e- bfdd-4bdf-8be5-20b4a8d9467d/_JC81851.aspx

Colorado Department of Transportation. (2018). Colorado Road Network. Retrieved from http://dtdapps.coloradodot.info/otis/catalog Colorado Motor Carriers Association. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cmca.com/ Colorado Oil Gas Conservation Commission. (2018, October). Directional Well Data. Retrieved from http://cogcc.state.co.us/data2.html /downloads Colorado Oil Gas Conservation Commission. (2018, October). Oil Gas Location Data. Retrieved from http://cogcc.state.co.us/data2.html /downloads Colorado Oil Gas Conservation Commission. (2018, October). Oil and Gas Field Polygons. Retrieved from http://cogcc.state.co.us/data2.html /downloads Colorado Oil Gas Conservation Commission. (2018, October). Weekly/Monthly Well Activity. Retrieved from http://cogcc.state.co.us/data2.html /downloads Colorado Oil Gas Conservation Commission. (2018, October). Well Surface Location Data. Retrieved from http://cogcc.state.co.us/data2.html /downloads Colorado Oil Gas Conservation Commission. (2019, May). Production by County. Retrieved from http://cogcc.state.co.us/data4.html /production Colorado Oil Gas Conservation Commission. (2019, May). Production Data. Retrieved from http://cogcc.state.co.us/data2.html /downloads Colorado Oil Gas Conservation Commission. (n.d.). Environmental Unit Exploration Production Waste Management. Retrieved from https://cogcc.state.co.us/documents/about/TF_Summaries/GovTaskForceSummary_Environmental_E P _Waste.pdf

Tagged Passions:boards and commissions, streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, Conservation, and environment

Colorado Oil and Gas Association. (2019). Operator A, Trip Generation Model - 10 Well, 3mi Lateral, Freshwater Pipeline, wi/ and wi/o Product Pipeline.

Dermansky, J. (2014). Active drilling rig on a hilltop near Greeley, Colorado. Retrieved from http://www.desmogblog.com/sites/beta.desmogblog.com/files/J46A2561-Edit.jpg Appendix A DRAFT August 2019 Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2017, February 17). NFHL Data-County. Adams County, CO. Retrieved from https://msc.fema.gov/portal/advanceSearch searchresultsanchor

Tagged Passions:sites, Fossil Fuels - Oil, emergency, and FEMA

Felsburg Holt Ullevig. (2018). Adams County Oil and Gas Transportation Impact Study. Felsburg Holt Ullevig, BBC Research Consulting. (2016). City of Thornton Oil Gas Traffic Impact Fee Study. Felsburg Holt Ullevig, BBC Research Consulting. (2017). Boulder County Oil and Gas Roadway Impact Study. La Plata County. (2002). La Plata County Impact Report. Retrieved from

No additional detail provided

Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, services, and traffic

http://www.co.laplata.co.us/departments_elected_officials/planning/natural_resources_oil_gas/impact_ report

Tagged Passions:planning

Machemehl, P.E., R. B., Smith, L., Zuehlke, J., Gutekunst, EIT, J., Motamed, M., Alrashidan, A., . . . Baumanis, C. (2016). Preparing for Increased Petroleum Prospecting in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Center for Transportation Research. Retrieved from https://library.ctr.utexas.edu/ctr- publications/iac/petroleum_prospecting_tamaulipas_20160713.pdf

Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, university, Immigration, and library

McClurg, L. (2014). Colorado Public Radio. Retrieved from http://www.cpr.org/news/story/ripple-effect-what- happens-when-fracking-and-water-intersect-colorado

National Research Council Committee for the Truck Weight Study. (1990). Special Report 225: Truck Weight Limits Issues and Options. Transportation Research Board.

Tagged Passions:council, radio, utility, Utility, transportation, water, fracking, and FRACKING

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. (2011). Supplemental Generic Environmental Impact Statement On The Oil, Gas and Solution Mining Regulatory Program. Retrieved from http://www.dec.ny.gov/energy/45912.html

North Dakota Department of Transportation. (2006). Impact of Oil Development on State Highways. Pavement Interactive. (2009, June 5). Flexible Pavement ESAL Equation. Retrieved from Pavement Interactive: http://www.pavementinteractive.org/article/flexible-pavement-esal-equation/ Pavement Interactive. (2009, June 5). Rigid Pavement ESAL Equation. Retrieved from Pavement Interactive: http://www.pavementinteractive.org/article/rigid-pavement-esal-equation/ Peters, E. (2017, 6 27). Niobrara (CO WY) update through March 2017. Retrieved from https://shaleprofile.com/index.php/category/niobrara/ Prozzi, J., Grebenschikov, S., Banerjee, A., Prozzi, J. (2011). Texas Department of Transportation. University of
Tagged Passions:regulation, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, program, Conservation, environment, Development, university, and energy

Texas Center for Transportation Research. Retrieved from http://ctr.utexas.edu/wp- content/uploads/pubs/0_6513_1a.pdf

Putzmeister. (n.d.). 58-Meter Truck-Mounted Concrete Boom Pump. Quiroga, C., Kraus, E., Tsapakis, I., Li, J., Holik, W. (2015, August). Research Report RR-15-01. Truck Traffic and Truck Loads Associated with Unconventional Oil and Gas Developments in Texas. College Station, TX: Texas A M Transportation Institute. Retrieved 2019, from https://static.tti.tamu.edu/tti.tamu.edu/documents/409186/RR-15-01.pdf Quiroga, C., Kraus, E., Tsapakis, I., Li, J., Holik, W. (2016, August). Implementation Report RR-16-01. Truck Traffic and Truck Loads Associated with Unconventional Oil and Gas Developments in Texas. College Station, TX: Texas A M Transportation Institute. Retrieved 2019, from https://static.tti.tamu.edu/tti.tamu.edu/documents/409186/RR-16-01.pdf Rangeview Metropolitan District. (2017, October). Water System. Retrieved from http://www.purecyclewater.com/wp-content/uploads/Rangeview_PCYO-Water-System-Map-October- 2017-1.pdf Regional Economic Studies Institute. (2014). Impact Analysis of the Marcellus Shale Safe Drilling Initiative. Towson University. Retrieved from http://www.mde.state.md.us/programs/Land/mining/marcellus/Documents/RESI_Marcellus_Shale_Repo rt_Final.pdf Renegade Oil Gas Company, LLC. (2012). Rio Blanco County Building Division. (2016). Impact Fees. Retrieved from http://www.co.rio- blanco.co.us/174/Impact-Fees RPI Consulting, LLC. (2008). Road Bridge Department Impact Fee Support Study. Rio Blanco County, CO. Appendix A DRAFT August 2019 Sangosti, R. (2014). Completion rig and trucks on a well pad in Weld County, Colorado. The Denver Post. Retrieved from http://www.denverpost.com/2015/02/15/weld-county-agriculture-and-energy-intersect-in- nuanced-relationship/ STE. (2012). Matrix Oil Field Redevelopment Pavement Evaluation Study. The Niobrara News. (2014, July 13). Decline Curves of the Niobrara. The Niobrara News. Retrieved from http://www.niobraranews.net/production/decline-curves-niobrara/ Tolliver, D. (2014). Transportation Systems for Oil Gas Development: Case Study of the Bakken Shale. American
Tagged Passions:streets, agriculture, utility, Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, Utility, transportation, services, program, water, Development, university, energy, and traffic

Society of Engineers Shale Energy Engineering Conference. Pittsburgh. United States Department of Transportation. (2000). Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Study. Retrieved from

Tagged Passions:transportation and energy

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/reports/tswstudy/TSWfinal.htm United States Energy Information Administration. (2016). Colorado State Profile and Energy Estimates. Retrieved

Tagged Passions:energy

from United States Energy Information Administration Independent Statistics Analysis: https://www.eia.gov/state/?sid=CO

Tagged Passions:energy

Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. (2010). Additional Road Investments Needed to Support Oil and Gas Production and Distribution in North Dakota. North Dakota State University. Retrieved from http://www.ugpti.org/resources/downloads/2010-12_AddRoadInvToSupportOil.pdf

Tagged Passions:streets, Fossil Fuels - Oil, transportation, investment, and university

Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. (2012). An Assessment of County and Local Road Infrastructure Needs in North Dakota. North Dakota State University. Retrieved from http://www.ugpti.org/resources/downloads/2010-12_AddRoadInvToSupportOil.pdf

Tagged Passions:streets, transportation, and university

Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. (2013). Impacts to Montana State Highways Due to Bakken Oil Development. Montana Department of Transportation. Retrieved from http://www.mdt.mt.gov/other/research/external/docs/research_proj/oil_boom/final_report.pdf

Tagged Passions:Fossil Fuels - Oil, development, transportation, and Development

Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute. (2014). Infrastructure Needs: North Dakota's County, Township and Tribal Roads and Bridges: 2015-2034. North Dakota State University. Retrieved from http://www.ugpti.org/resources/reports/downloads/2014-07-infrastructure-needs.pdf

Utah Department of Transportation. (2013). Uinta Basin Energy and Transportation Study. Retrieved from http://www.utssd.utah.gov/documents/ubetsreport.pdf Appendix B DRAFT August 2019
Tagged Passions:streets, transportation, university, and energy

APPENDIX B. OTHER TRAVEL MODEL ASSUMPTIONS Assumption Reasoning / Notes

Tagged Passions:travel

Roads from adjacent counties were included in the model but not assessed for impacts

Tagged Passions:streets

Origins/destinations outside of Arapahoe County, specifically to the North, were programmed at actual locations of where facilities are located

Speed limits were acquired from an Arapahoe County speed sign database and using Google StreetView Road segments received nearest signed speed Major paved roads were validated/acquired via Google StreetView Finding speeds for each road segment, specifically minor local roads, would have had a low benefit/cost ratio Gravel roads do not have a posted speed limit; generalized speeds were used All highway ramps entered into the model as a one-lane roadway Congestion was not factored within the model, and all ramps in the travel shed are the responsibility of CDOT, thus do not factor into calculated impacts Intersection controls were not defined Programming signal timing would have had a low benefit/cost ratio Delay from intersection controls would be low in comparison to the total trip time Actual turn lane configurations were not included within the network

Tagged Passions:Google, streets, travel, and traffic

Programming turn lanes into the model would have had a low benefit/cost ratio Delay reduction from turn lanes would be low in comparison to the total trip time

No pad-to-pad travel Data on pad-to-pad travel patterns and volumes were unavailable, and such travel patterns are complex and highly uncertain case-by-case occurrences to predict The pad in each pad zone of the model was located in the most open, least developed, and unincorporated location outside of the floodway and nearest to a road for access Pads typically locate away from housing and other buildings to avoid conflict with local residents The analysis for this study was only concerned with pads developing in unincorporated portions of the County Floodways mainly influenced the placement of a pad within a zone, with only a few potential pad zones eliminated due to being fully covered by a floodway Paths connecting pad centroids were connected to the nearest major road in a geographically logical manner Development would be unlikely to construct a bridge to cross water unless absolutely necessary Major roads would be most suitable for travel Connecting to the nearest road reduces access road costs and travel time No trips were assigned to travel via the E-470 tollway Hazardous materials are prevented from traveling on E-470 Multiple free comparable travel paths are available Transporters are toll-averse and no way to estimate the percentage of trips that would be willing to use. All pads were modeled to generate trips in one model run per phase The approach defined to the left and in the report results in a true average potential cost to the County s road network regardless of where and when a pad develops Not conducted was the creation of pace-of-development scenarios that utilize a

Tagged Passions:streets, travel, utility, development, Utility, materials, water, Development, hazardous materials, and housing

random location selection process of active pads (because the location of future pads is unknown) because this can lead to situations where if the randomization process selected pad locations that must use more County roads, the cost per pad/well is higher; or if the randomization process selected pad locations that primarily accessed state highways or municipal roads, the cost per pad/well is lower

Appendix C DRAFT August 2019 APPENDIX C. MITIGATION UNIT COSTS SUMMARY The following unit costs were developed in coordination with Arapahoe County staff using County data in conjunction with CDOT costs. These are generalized planning-level costs that incorporate standard values used by the County for all occurrences of these activates, not just for the purposes of this study. These costs do not include any changes in roadway classification or acquisition of right-of-way. Maintenance Activity 2017 Cost Unit Assumptions Asphalt overlay 85 Per ton n/a Asphalt reconstruction 30,000 Per foot of width, per mile Includes removal cost Concrete reconstruction 580,000 Per lane, per mile 12-foot lane width, 12-inch depth Grading 350 Per mile 1 every 2 months Gravel 45,000 Per mile Applied every 7 years Dust Suppressant 9,000 Per mile 1 per year
Tagged Passions:planning, streets, grading, and selection

Source: Arapahoe County, 2019

Appendix D DRAFT August 2019

Appendix D. Stakeholder Comments Responses

M a r c h 2 9 , 2 0 1 9 U p d a t e S t a k e h o l d e r C o m m e n t a n d R e s p o n s e S u m m a r y C o m m e n t S o u r c e ( s ) * N o t e s C o u n t y R e s p o n s e 1 . O n e p a d e v e r y s q . m i . f o r t h e W e s t Z o n e i s t o o m u c h . I n 1 0 - y e a r t i m e p e r i o d 2 5 t o 5 0 i s m o r e r e a s o n a b l e . P a i n t s a n u n r e a s o n a b l e p i c t u r e . V e r b a l C O G A N o c o m m e n t s o n t h e 1 p a d / 6 s q . m i . C e n t r a l o r 1 p a d / 2 4 s q . m i . i n E a s t z o n e . C h a n g e t o 1 p a d / 2 s q . m i . i n W e s t Z o n e C l e a r l y e x p l a i n i n r e p o r t t h a t n u m b e r o f p a d s i s n o t a p r e d i c t i o n b u t f o r a n a l y t i c a l p u r p o s e s t o c a l c u l a t e t h e a v e r a g e i m p a c t o f p a d s a n d w e l l s i n s t u d y a r e a .

2
. 1 0 w e l l s / p a d i s t o o m u c h f o r A r a p a h o e C o d r i l l i n g n o t e x p e c t e d t o b e a s i n t e n s e a s A d a m s o r W e l d

V e r b a l S o m e r e c e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s h a v e b e e n f o r 1 0 + w e l l p a d s . N o c h a n g e p r o p o s e d .

3
. E x p e c t l i t t l e o r n o d r i l l i n g e a s t o f K i o w a / B e n n e t t R o a d . E l i m i n a t e e a s t a r e a f r o m a n a l y s i s o r d o n t i n c l u d e i n f e e c a l c u l a t i o n f o r W e s t z o n e

V e r b a l C o n t i n u e t o c a l c u l a t e f e e s a p p l i c a b l e t o 3 Z o n e s - C o u n t y c a n a p p l y d i f f e r e n t f e e s t o d i f f e r e n t z o n e s .

4
. E n s u r e t h a t m o n e y c o l l e c t e d i s u s e d o n r o a d s t h a t s e r v e o i l g a s a n d a r e w i t h i n t h e s a m e Z o n e

V e r b a l T h e C o u n t y w i l l u s e f u n d s o n r o a d s s e r v i n g o i l g a s d e v e l o p m e n t . N o t d e s i r a b l e t o c r e a t e s t r i c t b e n e f i t d i s t r i c t s t i e d t o t h e 3 z o n e s t h a t i m p e d e f l e x i b i l i t y t o a d d r e s s p r i o r i t y n e e d s .

5
. N e e d a n a l y s i s a n d a f e e f o r v e r t i c a l w e l l s a n d w o r k o v e r s o f e x i s t i n g w e l l s

V e r b a l R e q u e s t i n d u s t r y i n p u t o n t r i p g e n e r a t i o n f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s t o c o m p a r e a g a i n s t c u r r e n t s o u r c e s . I n c l u d e f e e s i n f i n a l r e p o r t f o r t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s b a s e d o n p r o p o r t i o n a l i m p a c t c o m p a r e d t o h o r i z o n t a l w e l l s . C o m m e n t S o u r c e ( s ) * N o t e s C o u n t y R e s p o n s e 6 . R e a c t i o n t o t h e g r a p h i c s h o w i n g l a r g e s t t r u c k s w i t h 1 5 , 0 0 0 t o 4 6 , 0 0 0 X p a s s e n g e r c a r E S A L . V e r b a l C P C S e n t S t a k e h o l d e r s a n e w s l i d e s h o w i n g m a x i m u m o f 2 3 , 0 0 0 w h i c h i s r a t i o f o r a s p h a l t . R e p l a c e 4 6 , 0 0 0 w i t h 2 3 , 0 0 0 f o r a s p h a l t ; c h a n g e c o l u m n h e a d e r S p e c i a l t y T r u c k t o L a r g e s t S p e c i a l t y T r u c k . A d d n o t e o n p r o p o r t i o n o f t o t a l t r i p s r e p r e s e n t e d b y s p e c i a l t y t r u c k s .

7
. P l e a s e i n c o r p o r a t e m o r e l o c a l d a t a i n a d d i t i o n t o n a t i o n a l d a t a i n d e v e l o p i n g t r i p g e n e r a t i o n p r o f i l e s U s e t r a f f i c s t u d i e s s u b m i t t e d t o C o u n t y .

V e r b a l , C O G A C P C R e v i e w o f 3 t r a f f i c s t u d i e s s h o w s h i g h e r t r i p g e n e r a t i o n e s t i m a t e s t h a n F H U p r o p o s e d r a t e s f o r 1 p a d / 1 w e l l . C O G A p r o v i d e d t r i p g e n e r a t i o n e s t i m a t e s f r o m a n o p e r a t o r f o r a 1 0 - w e l l p a d u s i n g 1 - , 2 - , 3 - m i l e h o r i z o n t a l l a t e r a l s . T h e s e e s t i m a t e s w e r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h F H U s o t h e r d a t a s o u r c e s , w i t h t o t a l t r i p s s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n o t h e r s o u r c e s . F H U h a s a d d e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s e n t b y C O G A a s a n a d d i t i o n a l d a t a s o u r c e .

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. E - 4 7 0 i s n o t u s e d m u c h b y w a t e r d e l i v e r y o r o t h e r h i g h - v o l u m e h a u l e r s b u t m a y b e u s e d b y s o m e l a r g e r t r u c k s a n d p i c k - u p s .

V e r b a l F H U w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e t h i s c o m m e n t i n r o u t i n g a s s u m p t i o n s .

9
. I m p a c t f e e s s h o u l d n o t b e e x p e c t e d t o p a y f o r 1 0 0 o f i n d u s t r y i m p a c t t o r o a d s . T h e i n d u s t r y g e n e r a t e s a l a r g e a m o u n t o f r e v e n u e t o t h e C o u n t y t h r o u g h a d v a l o r e m a n d p r o p e r t y t a x e s t h a t a r e a n d c a n b e u s e d t o i m p r o v e a n d m a i n t a i n r o a d s .

V e r b a l , C O G A C P C P r o j e c t t e a m r e s p o n s e a t t h e m e e t i n g w a s t h a t t h e c h a r g e f r o m t h e B O C C i s t o c a l c u l a t e d e f e n s i b l e f e e s t o a d d r e s s t h e f u l l i m p a c t s o f t h e i n d u s t r y a n d t h e B O C C c a n o p t t o a d o p t f e e s l e s s t h a n t h e f u l l d e f e n s i b l e a m o u n t . C o n t i n u e t o c a l c u l a t e t h e m a x i m u m d e f e n s i b l e f e e f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n b y t h e B O C C . C o u n t y s t a f f w i l l p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n o n o t h e r i n d u s t r y r e v e n u e s t o C o u n t y f o r B O C C c o n s i d e r a t i o n .

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0 . W i l l t r a f f i c s t u d i e s s t i l l b e r e q u i r e d i f i m p a c t f e e s a r e p u t i n p l a c e ?

V e r b a l C P C P r o j e c t t e a m r e s p o n s e a t t h e m e e t i n g w a s t h a t t h e r e w i l l s t i l l b e a n e e d f o r r o u t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f n e e d e d C o u n t y s t a f f w i l l c l a r i f y n e w t r a f f i c s t u d y r e q u i r e m e n t s i f i m p a c t f e e i s a d o p t e d . C o m m e n t S o u r c e ( s ) * N o t e s C o u n t y R e s p o n s e t u r n l a n e s , i m p r o v e m e n t s t o i n t e r s e c t i o n s , e t c .

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1 . I n d u s t r y s h o u l d n t b e c h a r g e d f o r 1 0 0 o f c o s t o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g r o a d s i n p o o r c o n d i t i o n .

C O G A I n o t h e r s t u d i e s , F H U h a s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t a p p l y i n g o v e r l a y c o s t s f o r p o o r c o n d i t i o n r o a d s i s s i m i l a r t o o r m o r e t h a n r e c o n s t r u c t i n g . C o n t i n u e a s p l a n n e d a n d s t a t e t h e n o t e t o t h e l e f t i n t h e s t u d y r e p o r t .

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2 . I n d u s t r y s h o u l d n o t b e c h a r g e d 1 0 0 o f c o s t o f s h o u l d e r s s h o u l d b e p r o p o r t i o n a l t o i n d u s t r y V M T

C O G A T e n t a t i v e d i r e c t i o n i s t o n o t i n c l u d e s h o u l d e r s o r p a v i n g o f g r a v e l r o a d s i n t h e E S A L - b a s e d o i l g a s i m p a c t f e e , b u t t o i n c l u d e a s a V M T f e e b a s e d o n t h e 1 5 3 / v e h i c l e m i l e o f t r a v e l f e e i n t h e E a s t e r n P l a i n s T r a n s p o r t a t i o n I m p a c t F e e . C a l c u l a t e f e e f o r s h o u l d e r s a n d p a v i n g o f g r a v e l r o a d s u s i n g t h e 1 5 3 / V e h i c l e M i l e o f T r a v e l l e v e l p e r t h e E P T I F a p p l i e d t o a v e r a g e d a i l y t r a f f i c s p r e a d o v e r a 1 0 - y e a r p e r i o d . A p a s s e n g e r c a r e q u i v a l e n t p e r t h e H i g h w a y C a p a c i t y M a n u a l w i l l b e a p p l i e d t o t r u c k V M T .

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3 . P r o p o s e d 3 , 5 0 0 p s i R e s i l i e n t M o d u l u s v a l u e i s t o o l o w . C O G A s u g g e s t s a v a l u e o f a t l e a s t 1 0 , 0 0 0 .

C O G A C P C C o u n t y s t a f f a n d g e o t e c h n i c a l c o n s u l t a n t h a v e a f f i r m e d 3 , 5 0 0 a s a r e a s o n a b l e v a l u e N o c h a n g e p r o p o s e d

1
4 . P u t a m e c h a n i s m i n p l a c e f o r a d i s c o u n t o r r e f u n d i f p i p e l i n e s a r e i n s t a l l e d a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l f e e i s a s s e s s e d .

C O G A R e q u i r e p i p e l i n e c o m m i t m e n t w i t h i n i t i a l p l a n f o r r e d u c e d f e e

1
5 . A l l o w o p e r a t o r s t o c o n d u c t t h e i r o w n i n d e p e n d e n t t r a f f i c i m p a c t s t u d y t o c a l c u l a t e f e e . C o u n t y p r o v i d e g u i d e l i n e s , a p p e a l p r o c e s s a n d p o t e n t i a l l y a n E S A L - m i l e c o s t t o u s e i n i n d e p e n d e n t c a l c u l a t i o n .

C O G A P r o v i d e i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y g u i d e l i n e s a n d a p p e a l p r o c e s s i n t h e i m p l e m e n t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , p r o v i d e a n a v e r a g e E S A L - m i l e ( f o r p a v e d r o a d s ) a n d g r a v e l - m i l e c o s t i n t h e s t u d y r e p o r t

1
6 . F a i r n e s s i s s u e b e c a u s e c o n s t r u c t i o n i m p a c t s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d f o r h o m e o r c o m m e r c i a l i m p a c t f e e s .

C P C T h e c o n s t r u c t i o n i m p a c t p e r h o m e o r p e r 1 0 0 0 s q . f t . o f c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s s m a l l c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e i m p a c t N o c h a n g e p r o p o s e d C o m m e n t S o u r c e ( s ) * N o t e s C o u n t y R e s p o n s e o f m a n y t r i p s w i t h h e a v y a n d v e r y h e a v y t r u c k s f o r o i l g a s . I m p a c t f e e s f o r h o m e s a n d c o m m e r c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a r e c a l c u l a t e d b a s e d o n t h e i r o n g o i n g t r a f f i c w h i c h i s t h e i r p r i m a r y i m p a c t .

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7 . T h e s t u d y d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o a c c o u n t f o r o i l g a s d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t o c c u r s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n t h e s a m e v i c i n i t y w h e r e i n d u s t r y a n d o t h e r t r u c k s w o u l d s h a r e t h e s a m e r o a d s .

C P C F e e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d b a s e d d i r e c t l y o n i m p a c t s o f t r i p s g e n e r a t e d p e r p a d a n d p e r w e l l c o n s i d e r i n g t r u c k t y p e s , r o u t e s u s e d a n d t r i p l e n g t h s . N o c h a n g e p r o p o s e d

1
8 . R e q u e s t t h a t t h e s t u d y c o n s i d e r c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s o f o p e r a t o r s i n c l u d i n g v o l u n t a r y p a y m e n t s o f 7 , 5 0 0 p e r w e l l a n d v o l u n t a r y a s - n e e d e d r o a d m a i n t e n a n c e .

C P C T h e i m p a c t f e e w o u l d b e a s s e s s e d o n n e w o i l g a s d e v e l o p m e n t a n d w o u l d r e p l a c e t h e v o l u n t a r y u p - f r o n t p a y m e n t s .

1
9 . T h e p r o p o s e d 1 0 - y e a r t i m e f r a m e i s n o t a d e q u a t e b e c a u s e o f t h e d e c l i n i n g p r o d u c t i o n c u r v e . S u g g e s t a m i n i m u m o f 1 5 y e a r s .

C P C C o m m e n t m a y r e f l e c t a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a b o u t t h e p r o p o s e d m e t h o d o l o g y . I m p a c t s a r e c a l c u l a t e d b a s e d o n t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f t r i p s , n o t t r i p s / d a y o r / y e a r , s o a l o n g e r p r o d u c t i o n p e r i o d w o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e f e e . T h e a v e r a g e 2 t r i p s / d a y a s s u m e d o v e r 1 0 y e a r s r e f l e c t s a n a v e r a g e w i t h h i g h e r t r i p g e n e r a t i o n e a r l y i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n p e r i o d a n d l o w e r t r i p g e n e r a t i o n i n l a t e r y e a r s . N o c h a n g e p r o p o s e d .

2
0 . E n c o u r a g e t h e C o u n t y t o h o s t a n o t h e r s t a k e h o l d e r m e e t i n g t o f u r t h e r d i s c u s s


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